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Items filtered by date: May 2014

Saturday, 24 May 2014 08:41

American And French Realism

American And French Realism


In France, the realist movement flourished around 1840 and lasted up to the late 19th century. This is a movement that aimed to convey an objective and truthful vision of contemporary life. Realism took place after the end of the French revolution in 1848 that led to the overturning and overthrowing of Louis Philippe monarchy and led to the establishment of a second empire under the rule of Napoleon 11. Realism was based on direct observation of the real world and art materials such as painting were represented as concrete art that consist of a direct representation of existing and real things.


The French art was characterized by the idealization of rural and peasant life as a way of calming down the bourgeois fears. The realist approach had an impact in displaying bourgeois attention to the remaining ones after the 1789 revolution and 1830 preindustrial conditions. Artistic depiction of the lower class in France was more of a political act that criticizes the bourgeois power. An example of this art is Bonjour, Monsieur Courbet (1854) painting by Courbert Gustave The concept of realism in America was like an amorphous impulse. It was not determined the choice of subject, and the use of a specific technique and realism in America has some elements of the American romanticism. For example, the artwork by William Glackens known as the Green Car (1910) and George Bellows New York (1911).


 Pre-Raphelite Brotherhood philosophy and painting

Pre-Raphaelite is a movement that sprang from English painting tamper that reflects material and moral changes Pre-Raphaelite artistic philosophy is based on the principles of choice of ennobling and worthy subjects, detailed and precise delicacy and reliance on strict treatment of nature oat an age of the middle 19th century in England. Examples include Echo and Narcissus by John William Waterhouse (1849-1917), and  The Beguiling of Merlin (1872–77) by Dward burne-jones’s (1833–98).


 American artist

Winslow Homer (1836-1910) is an American artist who was among the artists caught up with the fervor of the late 19th century of Europe first then fortune and fame. He did not resist the temptation of travelling to Europe because he believed that his country American had to develop to an indigenous art free like the European decadence and sophistication. His painting mainly comprised of landscape and marine subjects as seen in The Red Canoe, 1889; After the Hurricane, Bahamas, 1899; and Rowing Home, 1890 (Lewis, 2003, p 57).


 Work cited

Lewis S (2003) American art and artists. University of California Press, p 57



Published in Sociology
Saturday, 24 May 2014 08:37

Minnetonka Warehouse

 Minnetonka warehouse


 Wayne Schuler is the manager of Minnetonka warehouse. His current concern is the number of employees that are expected to handle the task of unloading dock. He learned that he has to pay stiff penalties when the trucks spend a lot of time at the docks before unloading. He had to pay much to the motor carriers for providing deliveries services. In order to solve this problem, Wayne had to add the number of crews at the dock to help in unloading, but he realized that most of the crew members had to spend a lot of time dealing as they wait, for other trucks, to come for unloading. In order to address this problem, Wayne remembered the queuing theory that he had learned in college.


 Thesis statement

Queuing theory is an analysis approach of probabilities that are related to waiting in line for customers, orders and arrival pattern. The common situation is that as per the average, a warehouse facility can experience excess capacity, and often the facility is more than full with a lot of work to be accomplished (Mentzer, 2001). The backlog of work is always associated with costs as well as penalties that need to be pay. It can also make customers walk away and never come back. When a company expands its capacity, then the waiting times are reduced a. When the cost increases, there is the need to pay for the facility even when it’s idling. The queuing theory is essential for establishing the best capacity level that will lead to minimize costs for service provision and costs for individual in need to use the service.


 Purpose of paper

This paper will look at how the queuing theory can help Wayne Shuller in reducing the costs of manning his Minnetonka warehouse. The essay will present calculations on the expected number of tracks waiting, in a queue, to be unloaded, the expected time in queuing and the expected time that a truck will wait in line to be unloaded, probability that the truck may fail to be unloaded and whether Wayne has to rent a forklift (Murphy, and Wood 2010).


 Question A

In determining the number of tracks waiting at the queue, Wayne has to consider the following facts. First is that trucks randomly arrive at the dock at an average rate of 4 per hour, with a deviation of minus or plus one. Two warehouse workers can unload at a rate of one for every 12 minutes or five per hour. A team of four warehouse workers can unload at a rate of ten per hour or 1 for every 6 minutes. A warehouse worker is paid $ 14 for every hour and has to be paid for the whole shift or cannot be assigned other duties in the warehouse as per the union rules.


 Team Size        Service Rate    Formula           Trucks in Queue

2                      5/ hr                 42/5                             3.200

3                      8/ hr                 42/32                           .500

4                       10/ hr               42/60                          .267

5                      11/ hr               42/133                         .120


  Question B the probability that a truck can be unloaded is shown in the calculations below:

Team Size        Service Rate                Formula                      Probability to wait

2                                   5/ hr                (.8/1) X 100     80%

3                                  8/ hr                 (.125/.25) X 100          50%

4                                  10/ hr               (.067/.167) X 100        40.11%

5                                  11/ hr               (.030/.10) X 100          30%


 Question C

The following calculations show, which of the four work team sizes will cost Wayne the lowest cost

Team Size       Service Rate                Total Cost

2                      5/ hr                             $268

3                       8/ hr                            $102

4                      10/ hr                           $96

5                       11/ hr                         $95.32


 Question D

If Wayne considers renting a forklift and a two-person crew, he will have to pay a cost of $38 for every hour. When compared with the lowest cost in answers for question 4, then Wayne is required to hire the forklift and adopt the two-man crew. This is because a team of two men crew will not manage to unload trucks at the eight per hour rate or one having to use 7.5 minutes in unloading. Also a team of five warehouse workers will be expensive, and they will also not manage to unload trucks of one for 4.45 minutes or 11 per hour rate.


 Conclusion

This study has shown how Queuing theory can be applied in real life situation. The discussions above have shown the major elements include arrival, queue, service and outlet. Therefore, Wayne can effectively manage his warehouse by looking, at the elements of this theory, to save cost and reduce waiting time. 


Reference

Mentzer, J (2001) Supply Chain Management. Sage publisher, p 214

Murphy, P and Wood D (2010) Contemporary logistics. Prentice Hall, p 152-153



Published in Business Studies
Saturday, 24 May 2014 08:30

Aero Marine Logistics (AML)

Aero Marine Logistics (AML)


Supply chain management is a field that has been intensely studied within management science. Supply chain is a series that involves many participants who work together in value creating processes that start from the company boundaries so as to provide the end consumer with value (Chikan, 2008). Supply chain management involves the conscious management of various processes of the supply chain so as to enable the participants of the supply chain to attain a high level of competitiveness. Defining uncertainty and risks is always a challenge since it is perceived to exist when there is a high likelihood that a derailing event can occur that will have a significant impact on costs


 Thesis statement

Supply chain risks are an occurrence that can occur of a failure or incident in seizing opportunities for supplying to the customer. The outcomes of such an occurrence lead to financial loss in the entire supply chain. This means that risk can occur as a result of any form of disruption, poor quality, and price volatility of a service or product or from any event that can damage the reputation of the company.


 Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to analyze the case study Aero Marine Logistic. The paper will answer these main questions on logistics and supply chain management practices at Aero Marine Logistics. The first question will be about the participants in the supply chain as discussed in the case. The second question is about the logistics partnerships who are involved in sharing risks and costs. This question will address these risks and costs that are part of the venture as shared by the participants. The last question will be about negotiating agreements when considering risks costs, losses and possible profits of the venture.


 Logistics partnerships involved in sharing risks and costs.

The participants of this venture can include the mushroom suppliers such as the mushroom pickers, mushroom pickers and farmers. Other participants include transportation carriers who deliver mushroom to consolidators. There are the fresh food consolidators based in Amsterdam; the transport providers located in Delhi, Mumbai, and ocean carriers from Amsterdam to Mumbai.


There is also the container leasing company known as AML, restaurants, hotels, markets and open-air markets based in Northern India.The venture entails costs like line haul and accessorial transportation costs, energy costs incurred through the need to provide goods in a refrigerated container, containers investment costs, containers maintenance costs, flatcars reconfiguration costs and the capital costs. The capital costs have not been mentioned, but it is essential to consider it as a vital expenditure in starting this venture.The relevant risks facing the venture include the irregularities emerging from the product supply mainly in poor conditions that do not support the growth of mushrooms.


There is also the risk of lack of demand for the products. Refrigeration problems that cause product spoilage, maintenance of containers can be high than expected. This is mainly because of the high temperatures in India. There is also the risk of theft, but at a minimal rate because containers can be safe shelters for the products. Finally, there are the risks of dramatic changes in capital costs. Sharing risks and costs depend on the affected parties mainly on the risks and costs. For example, when mushrooms lack demand, the risk has to be shared between AML and Fresh foods.


The refrigeration inadequacies can alternatively be shared between the container supplier, AML and the company responsible for the installation of flatcars that are power equipped if they are not part of AML.The suppliers (mushroom pickers, mushroom pickers and farmers) will share risks, costs and losses and profits with transportation carriers who deliver mushroom to consolidators Fresh food consolidators based in Amsterdam and the transport providers located in Delhi, Mumbai will also share profits and losses with ocean careers from Amsterdam to Mumbai and the container leasing company known as AML.


 Conclusion

From this discussion, it is clear that Risk management helps partners of the supply chain to focus on collaborative and managed approaches and strengthen their resources so as to lessen the frequency and impact of undesired events. Risk management can, therefore, help in aligning the activities of the stakeholders based on shared information. This study indicates that the supply chain is much more responsive and agile to unforeseen events that positively contribute to improved performance.


Management of risks in supply chain is a growing and established concept within the commercial sector especially in supply chains that are already established like for the case of Aero Marine Logistics (AML). The company being an expert in handling exports of various cargo types through the ocean and air freight. Therefore, it is essential for AML to come up with a risk management plan that will ensure that all participants within the supply chain are involved in sharing costs and risks and also profits and losses (Murphy and Wood 2010).


 Reference

Chikán, A (2008). Vállalatgazdaságtan. Aula kiadó, Budapest

Murphy, P and Wood D (2010) Contemporary logistics. Prentice Hall, p 152-153



Published in Management
Saturday, 24 May 2014 08:25

Pharmacological Treatment and Prevention

HIV/AIDS: Pharmacological Treatment and Prevention


Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) is the final stage of HIV infection. AIDS is the 6th leading cause of death in America due to the fact that it damages the patient’s immune system. An AIDS patient is susceptible to a series of common illnesses caused by yeast, parasite, bacteria and viruses. Diseases caused by these pathogens are not always fatal to a person whose immune system is strong.


However, patients with AIDS most often succumb to illnesses caused by these pathogens. AIDS patients first acquire HIV infection before it develops to AIDS (PubMed health, 2012). HIV is not easy to detect unless through HIV tests as there are no obvious infections. AIDS continue to claim many lives due to delayed diagnosis and also the fact that there is no known cure for the disease. However, there have been ongoing research of pharmacological treatment and prevention of disease.


 Body

Continued research has seen the emergence of antiretroviral drugs, which suppress the replication of HIV in the body. Currently, there are six main classes of antiretroviral medications NRTIs, NNRTIs, PIs, Fusion (entry) inhibitors, Integrase inhibitors, and CCR5 antagonists.  Protease Inhibitors (Pls) is used with a combination of two or three other antiretroviral medicines. HIV Infects a person CD4 cell by copying its genetic code on the cell’s DNA. Pls functions by blocking the HIV protease enzyme thus preventing the CD4 cells from producing new HIV.


The approval of the first Pls led to the adoption of the highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) with the intention of preventing further replication of the virus. Some patients still proved to be resistance to HAART thus resulting of the introduction of CCR5 inhibitors and fusion entry inhibitors (Poveda and Soriano, 2006). These inhibitors work by preventing the HIV from entering healthy CD4 cells. These inhibitors work by attaching themselves to proteins on the surface of the CD4 cells or on the surface of the HIV. It is these through these attachments that the inhibitors ensure that the HIV does not bind with the protein form the CD4 cells.


The inhibitors thus prevent HIV from binding with the CD4 cells thus preventing entry into the CD4 cells. Nucleoside Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitors (NRTIs) alter the correct build up of the HIV infected DNA thus halting its ability to create new viruses. The non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NNRTIs) prevent the HIVs reverse transcriptase enzyme form converting RNA to DNA (Boyd and Andrew 2010). Subsequently, HIV genetic material cannot be incorporated in the healthy DNA cells thus no new HIV production. Integrase inhibitors have also been used to block integrase.


Integrase is a viral enzyme responsible for the entry of the HIV viral genome into the DNA of the patient. It is by blocking the entry of the virus that further spread is halted. It should be noted that the six antiretroviral drugs mentioned do not cure an infected person from HIV/AIDS. These drugs are given to HIV/AIDS patients with the intention of minimizing the spread of the virus. These drugs are not used solely but in combination of other antiretroviral drugs. Each of the drugs performs a specific function thus ensures that the patient, immune system is maintained thus preventing the occurrence of opportunistic diseases (Bazolli and Jullien, 2010).


Since there is no cure for HIV/AIDS, the only way to avoid infection is by embracing preventive measures. HIV is mainly spread through the transfer of bodily fluids from a HIV infected person to a Non-infected person. Bodily fluids are mainly exchanged through sexual intercourse. It is paramount, therefore, for people to practice safe sex. Safe sex involves ensuring that people are tested for HIV before they engage in any sexual contact. It also involves abstaining from sex or engaging in responsible sexual activity by having only one partner.


People can also chose to use protective measures such as condoms to minimize the risk of infection. Other than sexual activities, it is essential not to share needles and syringes as it involves sharing of blood (PubMed health, 2012). HIV pregnant mothers also need to be enrolled into therapy programs that will ensure that the HIV is not transmitted to the child once it is born. Prevention is the ultimate way of ensuring that a person is not infected with the HIV responsible for causing AIDS.


 Conclusion

To-date, there have never been a cure for HIV/AIDS. AIDS continues to cost millions of people, their lives as the disease is gradual and non symptomatic unless a person is tested. Early detection guarantees early treatment. It is easier to mitigate and prevent further spread of HIV before it becomes fully blown AIDS. The use of HAART, which involves the combination of different drugs ensure that further spread of the virus is mitigated. Antiretroviral drugs such as inhibitors ensure that the HIV does not attach to the patient’s DNA. A patient thus retains a high CD4 count thus optimal health. NRTs alter the buildup of the virus thus affecting the virus’ ability to replicate.


 Reference

PubMed health. AIDS. 2012retroved from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmedhealth/PMH0001620/

Poveda Eva and Soriano, Vincent. Resistance to entry inhibitors. In, Geretti, Anna’s Antiretroviral resistance in clinical practice. Med script Limited, 2006, p126-135

Boyd M. and Andrew M. Clinical Management of Treatment-Experienced, HIV/AIDS Patients in the Combination Antiretroviral Therapy Era. Pharmacoeconomics. 2010. 28, 17-34.

Bazzoli C, Jullien, V and Mentre F. Intracellular pharmacokinets of antiretroviral drugs in HIV infected patients and their correlation with drug action. Clinical Pharmacokinetics. 2010, Vol. 49 Issue 1, p17-45. 29p.


 

Published in Psychology
Saturday, 24 May 2014 08:21

Employment Testing

Employment Testing


Employment testing refers to any pre-employment test or assessment that is designed to measure a candidate’s knowledge, skills, abilities or behaviors. Employment testing is a critical but often overlooked component of the selection process. This oversight is often fueled by misconceptions maintained by those in operations and human resources. For instance, some business owners, managers, and human resource personnel believe that interviews provide sufficient information for selection.


Other unfounded beliefs are that testing is too expensive to add value testing unduly dwindles the applicant pool, and testing is a legal risk. These misconceptions often keep companies from realizing the vast benefits of employment testing. Employment testing is also used to facilitate employment development. However, employment testing offers companies strategic advantage in terms of the ability to select those applicants who fit the company culture and job requirement accurately, to develop employees in key areas, and to retain employees longer.  The goal of any organization when using a selection test or assessment is to improve the ability to predict performance.  


Organizations want to assess accurately and objectively the candidate’s ability and desire to effectively. Some of the quoted benefits of testing during selection include: it increases selection objectivity, increases the ability to predict a candidate’s performance, enables the interviewer to target areas for follow-up, act as the basis for employee development in the future and provides strong return to investment. The purpose of this paper is to explore the role of testing in relation to the selection during staffing.  The findings of this paper are based on a literature review conducted from academic databases such as the Ebscohost and Proquest.


According to Ajila and Okafor (2012), the objective of testing particularly for staff recruitment, selection and placement is to solicit further information to assess the employee’s suitability to the job.  Therefore, employment testing is the practice of administering written, oral or other tests as a means of determining the fitness or desirability of a job applicant.  The underlying reason is that if test scores of the applicants’ correlates with job performance, then, it is economically viable for an employer to select employees based on the scores from that test.  As a result, employment or selection tests must be validated, or the jobs they are being used to hire for, and for the purpose for which they are being used.   


According to Ajila & Okafor (2012), standardized testing is the most effective way to hire great performers who would help organizations make profit, avoid costly hiring mistakes, reduce employee turnover and improve training programme results. Giumetti and Sinar (2012) note that the use of employment tests has gained prevalence within organizations. Their applications have extended the ordinary use as screening tools for external applicants, to encompass internal promotions or transfer decisions.There are numerous types of pre-employment testing processes. Screening instruments have been designed to measure behavioral traits such as intelligence abilities, job-specific skills, expressive stability, personality, and self-control.


There are three main types of tests that include intelligence, personality and simulation.  Intelligence or cognitive tests are used to measure an applicant’s ability to think and solve problems and can be used in verbal intelligent testing   and non-verbal intelligence testing. They ca n be further classified into mechanical aptitude, clerical aptitude, and spatial aptitude. Proponents of the use of cognitive ability tests offer as the primary basis for their enthusiasm the ubiquitous and robust validity of these instruments across all jobs.   Cognitive tests measures memory skills, reading comprehension, math skills, and reasoning. They have proven to provide significant predictive validity with respect to the productivity and success of employees in an organizational setting.


 They often correlate with measures of job performance across many jobs (Outtz, 2002).Personality attributes are widely recognized as contributors to job success. There are numerous commercially available instruments for measuring personality characteristics.  The history of personality testing has evolved from testing for psychopathology to testing for problem tic employees.   Currently most personality tests are used to measure the applicant’s emotional adjustment and attitudes. These tests often evaluate interpersonal relationship and into see how an applicant might fit into the organization.  


According to Tett & Simonet (2011), personality tests are often challenged by the issue of faking. Describing oneself, truthfully or not, entails a complex set of cognitive processes, including storage and retrieval of self-images based on the experiences in diverse situations.   It requires veridical self-knowledge, conferred in part by the cognitive ability.  Faking in personality tests arises from two main opportunities to fake. The first is the availability of a test on which it is possible to fake. The second is when the test taker scores below the highest possible scores on a given scale. However, personality tests remain an integral part of pre-employment tests.


 References

Ajila, C. O., & Okafor, L. (2012). EMPLOYMENT TESTING AND HUMAN RESOURCE MANAGEMENT. IFE Psychologia, 20(2), 91-98.

Outtz, J. L. (2002). The Role of Cognitive Ability Tests in Employment Selection. Human Performance, 15(1/2), 161-171.

Tett, R. P., & Simonet, D. V. (2011). Faking in Personality Assessment: A 'Multisaturation' Perspective on Faking as Performance. Human Performance, 24(4), 302-321. Doi:10.1080/08959285.2011.597472


 

Published in Business Studies

Challenges Facing the Human resource Department


The human resource department remains one of the core departments in any organization that wants to succeed in the modern business environment. The human resource department is mandated with managing one of the most crucial resources in any organization. It is the responsibility of the human resource department to manage the workforce, to train and meet their basic needs for the organization to achieve competitive advantage in the 21st century.


 Due  to the rapid changes in the business world, globalization change in customer tastes and habits, new techniques of production, employees are currently facing a different kind of problems, in order to cope with these challenges, human resource managers are faced with a variety of issues and challenges on how to manage the dynamic human resources.  The purpose of this paper is to explore the biggest challenges facing human resource department in the modern business environment.


 The findings of this paper are based on a literature review conducted from academic articles and journals from major databases such as the EBScohost and the ProQuest.Hameed (2012) conducted a literature review to analyze the priorities of 21st century human resource managers.  Hameed noted that the human resource department is continuously changing. He identified the various scholars and challenges the proposed to be the greatest in human resource.  He identifies the top ten challenges facing human resource department as the retention of workforce, multicultural workforce, globalization, technology, change in the demand of the government, women workforce and the process of change.


 In addition, he pointed out that organizations are facing leadership challenges, organizational effectiveness, change management, compensation and safety issues.  In the light of globalization, the main challenges facing human resources department, therefore, are the diverse workforce, change management and marinating organization effectiveness.According to Castro (2013), the worldwide phenomenon of economic globalization has not only provided different logistic and consumption habits, but also has generated a new workforce environment that is much diverse than ever.


 In the modern business world, managers are supervising employees in different geographic regions globalization has increased movement of labor and technology has increased connectivity in the world. This has created the need for multiculturalism. Diversity and multiculturalism include distinctiveness such as race, traditions, gender, age, belief and disability. Scholars are in agreement that organizations that will embrace and value diversity as an integral part of its value will have a positive impact on individual productivity, organizational effectiveness and sustained competitiveness.  In the increased need for energy and creativity from employees, racism, and sexism are major obstacles.  


Managing a diverse workforce possess a challenge in retaining women, people of color, and other ethnic groups, increased complaints and legal actions, unhealthy tension between people of different age, race, gender and abilities, inability to attract and retain talented workforce, loss of productivity and inadequate communication between employees.    Therefore, human resource managers must remain receptive to new ideas and provide regular feedback to shape goals and objectives of organization in line with the diverse workforce.Change management is the current phenomena in most organizations.  


Most organizations are changing their activities and organizational culture due to the advancement in technology, changing production techniques, changing behaviors of customers, economic changes (Hashim, 2013). These changes are compelling organizations and businesses to change their operations.  Change may be in terms of the organization structure, employees, technology, production techniques, and administration. However, human resources are the core factor in managing change.  Organizational change can develop skepticism and resistance in employees making it difficult or impossible to implement organizational improvements, which are core for long-term sustainability of an organization.


 Human resource department is mandated with understanding resistance and other responses to organizational change. They have to deal with denial, anger, bargaining, depression and acceptance.The effective management of the human resources is a critical component in the success of any organization.  Effective management of human resources leads to positive outcomes such as engagement, commitment, satisfaction and performance (Irfan, 2013).   One of the daunting challenges among human resource managers is to align individual employee’s performance with the organizational strategic objectives.


When employees understand the organizational priorities, they can better contribute by applying their skills to advance the organizational strategic goals. Employees who understand the “big picture” can make decisions that will contribute to the objectives of the firm.  Modern human resources departments are faced with the challenge of facilitating the channeling of individual efforts and talents toward organizational goals. Irfan (2013) notes that organizational effectiveness captures organizational performance advantage linked with more effective or efficient processes and internal measures. Human resources are the backbone of internal processes and measures and contribute immense on organizational effectiveness.


 References

Hashim, M., & Hameed, F. (2012). Human Resource Management in 21st Century: Issues & Challenges & Possible Solutions to Attain Competitiveness. International Journal of Academic Research In Business & Social Sciences, 2(9), 44-52.

Hashim, M. (2013). Change Management. International Journal Of Academic Research In Business & Social Sciences, 3(7), 685-694. Doi:10.6007/IJARBSS/v3-i7/92

Irfan U & Robina Y (2013). The Influence of Human Resource Practices on Internal Customer Satisfaction and Organizational Effectiveness. AUDA, vol. 5, no. 1/2013, pp. 5-38


 

Published in Business Studies
Saturday, 24 May 2014 08:05

Immorality Of Abortion

Immorality of abortion


The issue regarding abortion continues to be a controversial topic which has been debated for many years. Abortion is referred to as the deliberate termination of a pregnancy, and it is normally done before the fetus is capable of having an independent life.  Abortion is a topic that involves morality and people are usually forced to select one side or the other. There are various aspects that are involved in this controversial topic including political, religion, social beliefs, and medical factors.


Abortion is considered as immoral with an exception of few rare cases. The pro life activists claim that life is considered as present from the time of conception. A fetus looks like a baby, and they contain genetic code that is necessary and also sufficient for human beings. According to pro choice activist, they claim that the fetus is not human being, and they are not rational agents and also they are not social beings. This paper will aim at discussing why abortion is immoral and it will be based on the argument provided by Marquis.


 Argument

In why abortion is immoral by Don Marquis, the author claims that abortion is seriously wrong. According to Marquis, he states that abortion is morally wrong, and it needs not to be practices except in rare occasions. According to the thesis provided by the author, unless, in rare occasions, abortion is considered to be seriously wrong (Marquis, 1989). According to the author, the reason for providing exceptions is so that to avoid cases that can be considered as being controversial like when abortion is conducted after rape or in the first 14 days after conception. Abortion is also allowed if the pregnancy will pose a danger to the life of the woman.


 Explanation

Abortion is wrong as every human being has a right to live. A fetus that is usually destroyed is considered to be breathing, living, and even moving.  A fetus has the right to life and killing it means that it is denied the right to live. According to Marquis, killing the actual person is considered as wrong as this is an act that deprives the victim their future (Marquis, 1989).


I believe that life usually starts the moment that conception occurs. Therefore, it is important to start calling a human a human being the moment that fertilization takes place. In this case, fertilization happens when the spermatozoon from a male unite with ocyte from a female so that to give rise to an organism. It is necessary to remember that life starts at conception, and life is very precious; therefore, killing a child is morally wrong.I believe that every human being no matter age, race, or color have the right to life. Due to the fact that a fetus is classified as a human being, then it has to be shown the right to life. Killing a fetus is immoral because it denies it loss of experience that it would have and also deprived the value of their future (Marquis, 1989).


Therefore, this should be considered as one of the worst crimes committed intentionally. It is right to come to a conclusion that abortion is immoral because even killing an adult is not moral. When a person is being killed, they usually fear that their life will come to an end, and this causes fear. When a person loses life, they are usually deprived of many projects, enjoyment, activities, and even experiences. Killing refers to depriving life, and when a fetus is killed it means that it is deprived of certain experiences in its life. An adult has a future, and this is same to a fetus; hence, taking their life is immoral.


 Counterargument

Pro choice activists claim that the fetus is not human being, and they are not rational agents and also they are not social beings. People who support that abortion is not immoral claim that a fetus is not a human being. The opponents claim that a fetus falls in the genetic sense that it is not a fully fledged member in the moral community, and this is defined by several factors including reason, emotion, sentience, self-awareness, moral agency, and capacity to communicate (Johnston 2003).


These are factors that the opponents claim to be defining a human being, and since a fetus does not have the ability of conscience experience, then it lacks the ability of regulating its action by moral principles. The opponents claim that a fetus does not have emotional and mental capacity of being a human, and it does not meet the qualifications of a human being.It is argued that human beings have the capacity of experiencing pleasure and pain, and a fetus does not have this capacity; hence, it is not a human. The aim of this argument is to come to the conclusion that the moral rights of a fetus should not override the right of a woman to make a choice.


 Reply

In order to respond to the argument that a fetus is not a human being, the pro life claim that a fetus starts living the moment fertilizations happens. Therefore, it is not right to claim that a fetus is not a human being when arguing for abortion. In the biological sense, a fetus is a human, and it needs to be provided with the same treatments and rights just like the one we expect. It is right to provide the fetus with the same life like ours and be allowed to have a future of its own so that to get experiences as it continues to grow (Holmgren, & Giersson, 2000). Pro choice activists need to understand that abortion is just like pre-mature death and in both situations a person is usually deprived the chance of living a full life. The same way that pre-mature death deprives life is the same way that abortion denies the unborn child the chance to live.


 Conclusion

Killing is considered as being wrong because of the effect that it has on the victim. A fetus should be considered as a human from the time of conception; hence, gains all the rights to life. This paper has been able to provide an argument of why abortion should be considered as immoral as it deprives the victims the opportunity to have experience in the future. I believe that abortion is immoral and pro choice need to understand the effect that this practice causes to the victims who they refer as not human. Fetuses are human who have the same status as other human being; they deserve the same right to life.


Reference

Holmgren, M & Giersson, H (2000). Ethical theory Broadview press

Johnston, G (2003). Abortion from the religious and moral perspective Greenwood Publishing

Marquis, D (1989). Why abortion is immoral The journal of philosophy 86 (4)


 

Published in Psychology
Saturday, 24 May 2014 07:51

CASE 9-1: LOW NAIL COMPANY

CASE 9-1: LOW NAIL COMPANY


The economic order quantity (EOQ) is an inventory control approach for balancing ordering costs and ordering costs with the goal of minimizing inventory costs. Ordering costs are clerical, administrative and other expenses that occur when obtaining inventory items and keeping them for storage. Keeping the bought item also involves holding, carrying and other costs and experiences resulting from breakage, pilferage, insurance and storage. In order to determine the EOQ, a given calculus is the mathematical model is used.


 Thesis statement

The EOQ method uses an equation that includes the following items, ordering costs (O), annual demand (D), holding costs (H). The basic equation is represented in the equation below:


 Purpose of the paper

This paper will answer three questions in analyzing the various calculations that low has to understand his inventory costs based on the EOQ method. The first will be the number of kegs of nails that Low has to order. I will calculate this by using the EOQ approach outlined in chapter 8 of Murphy and Wood (2010) book. The second question will consider a case were 750 orders of kegs nails are made, and the supplier will take care of all the costs for order processing. However if the orders will be between 249 and 749 kegs the supplier will only cater for half the costs. Then how much will the new EOQ for low be? The last question will be on Low’s new EOQ if the wholesale costs of nails will be $ for every keg and him having to pay an interest of 1.5 % per month for unsold inventory.


 3. Body

A.) EOQ methods

EOQ model is based on the logic that; determining the quantity of an order calls for the need of a company to balance two types of costs. First is the cost of the inventory and the costs incurred for ordering the inventory. The cost of an inventory is in direct proportion to the size of the order. This means that the larger the order, then the high carrying cost of inventory and vice versa. On the contrary, ordering cost does decline with the size of the order in a nonlinear fashion. Therefore, EOQ is about finding the quantity point at which the costs of ordering is equivalent to carrying costs (Murphy and Wood2010).


 The EOQ formula is as follows:

EOQ= √ 2 (annual use in units) (cost of placing an order) / annual carrying cost per item per year = √ 2 (2000) (60) / 2

= √ 120,000

= 345 kegs per order

From the above calculations, 2 acts as the dominator because, on average the rented space of a warehouse is always half full resulting to warehousing costs for every keg to be $2 on average.


 B. New EOQ for Low

Orders/year

Order size

Processing costs ($)

Warehousing costs ($)

Sum of processing and warehousing costs ($)

1

2,000

Free

2,000

2,000

2

1,000

Free

1,000

1,000

3

667

90

667

757

4

500

120

500

620

5

400

150

400

550

6

334

180

334

514

7

286

210

286

496

8

250

240

250

490

9

223

540

223

743

The new EOQ for Low is 250Kegs as shown in the above tabular information. C. with the assumption that the wholesale costs of nails will be at $40 per keg and that Low will have to pay an interest of 1.5% every month for unsold inventory his new EOQ will be calculated in the tabular format below: the inventory interests will be examined in a new column. The assumption will be that if a single order is placed for a year the average inventory will be 1, 000 kegs being worth $40,000. The annual interest charges will be 12×1.5= 18%, which is $7, 200. Other costs of interests will be calculated in the same fashion with the average inventory rate adjustments. The table below shows these calculations:


 

Orders/year

Order size

Processing costs ($)

Warehousing costs ($)

Interest costs ($)

Sum of processing, warehousing, and interest costs ($)

1

2,000

60

2,000

7,200

9,260

2

1,000

120

1,000

3,600

4,720

3

667

180

667

2,405

3,252

4

500

240

500

1,800

2,540

5

400

300

400

1,440

2,140

6

334

360

334

1,203

1,897

7

286

420

286

1,030

1,736

8

250

480

250

900

1,630

9

223

540

223

807

1,570

10

200

600

200

720

1,520

11

182

660

182

656

1,498

12

167

720

167

605

1,492

13

154

780

154

555

1,489

14

143

840

143

519

1,50

 Therefore, the new EOQ will be 154kgs as shown in the above tabular information.


Conclusion

By using the EOQ method, it will be possible for Low and other business managers to decide the amount that they should order. Managers also have to determine the RIP which is the reorder point. RIP is the level of inventory that a new order should be made. In determine the RIP, managers have to estimate the lead time which is the time between receiving an order and when it was placed (Mentzer, 2001).


 Reference

Mentzer, J (2001) Supply Chain Management. Sage publisher, p 214

Murphy, P and Wood D (2010) Contemporary logistics. Prentice Hall, p 152-153



Published in Management
Saturday, 24 May 2014 06:47

Case 7-1 Handy Andy Inc (129-131)

Case 7-1 Handy Andy Inc (129-131)


 

The case on Handy Andy Inc shows various issues about customer service problems as presented by Jose Ortega. The customers are not aware of the various segments that form the whole supply chain. They only view the whole supply chain as a whole entity that belongs to Handy Andy. This case presents various service failures although the failures are not noted as resulting to incorrect, lost or damaged inquiries.


 

Thesis statement

The services also show the disconnected service delivery that impacts the dissatisfaction of customers.


 

Purpose

This study will show that failure of services presents the vital aspects of the true nature of a business, and it impacts on both customers and retailers. The true nature of businesses will determine whether or not a customer can redo or repeat business with a given retailer.


 

Overview of the paper

The first point that will be discussed is whether or not the service problem impacts customers. I will then talk about one year warranty as either being a problem for Handy Andy, Inc, or not, finally I will show the role expected of marketing vice president at this company if the warranty problem is a problem created by the company.


 

A customer service problem.

This is a customer service problem that negatively impacts on the customers. The customers who had bought a compactor from the company are presented as though they do not receive proper customer services from distributors of the factory. The poor customer service does manifest itself in the long period for delivery of bought goods and leaving the compactor before completion and the idea that customers are not provided, with proper instructions, to operate the compactor.The factory distribution in some cities according to Ortega’s discovery is that they mislead customers by making them deal with them directly, instead of dealing with the originally used smaller dealers.


The factory distributor also made disparaging comments about other small dealers so that they can support their claims. These tow problems leads to an unprofessional way of serving customers, and this also creates doubt about the product. These two problems are of negative impact to the customers. The way factory distributors steal the customers for smaller retailers is not a good picture to Handy Andy, Inc and its discredits the value of retailers. The factory distributors mislead customers by telling them that they can only find quality service when they deal with them directly.Another challenge that impacts the services to customers is the long delivery time. Customers mainly complained that retailers took too long than expected.


The after sales services from these retailers is also poor since some customers were not given instructions on installation or that the product was installed t for them by the installation technician. Such practices do undermine the expectation of customers and affect their loyalty to the company negatively. This means that customers who had poor services from Handy Andy were least likely to patronage the company that gave them poor service in installation and also seemed to have poor quality and untrustworthy goods.


 

One year warranty

This is a problem in the marketing channel of Handy Andy. This is because the factory distributors, home office, regular customers and Dealers are not working as it was planned. Though the current system still works it fails to add value to customers. The large factory distributors aim to swallow the smaller dealers in an unethical way. This affects the reputation of Handy Andy brands. With the progress of this practice in the long run, the smaller retailers will have to stop handling the products and this will results to few sales. The factory distributors also misinform customers, and they fail to provide them with good after sales services such as instructions for installation. These further damages the company’s reputation and customers will stop being loyal to the company.


 

Marketing vice president role

The marketing vice president will have to redesign the distribution channel in a strategic way so as to gain competitive advantage incorporating the strategic supply chain distribution and planning networks will help the company attain success in its retail operations. The marketing vice president deal will also be required to mitigate the negative pictures that customers have towards the quality of products and any other misinformation that they had been given the distributors. These approaches will help the company enhance its profitability and productivity for both the manufacturers and retailers (Rust, et al, 2004).


 

Conclusion

This essay has shown that Handy Andy is facing a customer service problem resulting from long duration of time taken in delivery of goods and misinforming customers by the distributors. This misinformation is as a result of the unethical and inappropriate completion between small retailers and the manufacturer’s distributors. One year warranty is a problem resulting from the distributors. The marketing vice president has to deal with this problem by redesigning the distribution channel in a strategic way.


 

Reference

Paul R. Murphy; Donald F (2010). Contemporary Logistics, Tenth Edition. Prentice Hall 129-131 Case 7.1

Rust, R., Tim A, Gregory S, V. Kumar, and Rajendra K. Srivastava (2004), Measuring Marketing Productivity Future Directions, Journal of Marketing, 68 76–89.



Published in Education
Saturday, 24 May 2014 06:45

Portfolio of Visions

Portfolio of Visions


My life mission statement is to contribute to the advancement of humanity by dedicating my life to worthy causes in life that will improve lives of not only my immediate family members, but also the society within my locality.  I believe that God created us to assist each other by playing an individual rightful role in life that contributes finally to the core existence and success of earthly life.  In order to achieve this positive influence on others, I have to strategize my life by establishing specific guidelines that will guide my actions and act as a timeline to assess my journey in life. To me, family comes first. Therefore, my immediately strategies and goals must be dedicated at improving the life of my family.


The first goal in life is to ensure those close to me live a healthy life that is void of avoidable diseases or injuries. Health is the foundation for everything else. With a good health, family members and society can work toward improving their lives.  Therefore, with the next one year I will improve the health of my immediate family members by encouraging them to adopt healthy lifestyles and an active physical life. In order to achieve this, I will seek annual gym members for my sister who is morbid obese and encourage her to adopt good eating habits. I will also source suppliers of fresh vegetables who will be delivering fresh fruits and vegetables to our family. This will is a long term commitment to avoid life style diseases associated with poor eating habit and lack of exercise.


Within the next five years, I want to ensure our family has a stable and sustainable source of income.  Therefore, I have to ensure that we establish a medium-sized restaurant within the locality that will serve as a family business.  This requires us to adopt conservative financial habits that will enable us to save enough for the business.  Personal development is key to ensuring one remains relevant not only in career, but also in the changing world. Within the next fifteen years, I have to ensure I increase my training not only in my current profession, but also in other courses such as accounting to enable me run the family business effective and if possible expand it.


Therefore, I have to enroll for part-time classes in accounting by 2020. However, I have to ensure the family business is on the right track before enrolling for accounting classes.By the year 2030, I want to have established a small not-for profit organization that will be dedicated toward helping homeless persons, specifically children and war veterans.   It is my joy to see the life of innocent children living on the street, or not having places find somewhere they can call home. It is disturbing to see our members of patriotic army retiring to a life of shame and struggle.  I will use my capacity in the society to mobilize individuals, religious and non religious organizations, and corporations in our region to source resources to assist our homeless children and honor our dignified soldiers with better places to stay. In order to actualize this goal, I have to ensure am in a position of influence within the next ten years. Therefore, I have to 


 

Published in Sociology
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