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Items filtered by date: May 2014

Saturday, 24 May 2014 14:13

Margaret Sanger

Margaret Sanger


Margaret Sanger, the founder of Planned Parenthood, was a believer in eugenics, a supporter of Hitler’s Nazi party, a bigot, racist, and she was an adulteress. She was engaged in the forum of purification of a given race in the society by the use of selective breeding. Evidence shows that she engaged in activities that promoted different philosophies that assisted in the state control of family size. Suggesting that Sanger was someone who practiced eugenics to most of the present day leaders involved in anti-life forums and Planned Parenthood activities would make no meaning. Although most won’t believe the situation, facts about behaviors of Sanger do speak for themselves simply because, in her birth control review journal, there are many quotes that indicate that she was favoring eugenics. This paper examines the life of Margaret Sanger, her life contributions, what made her become a successful person, and her relevance in the world of leadership.


 Discussion

Margaret Higgins Sanger was born September 14, 1879 in Corning, New York and died September 6, 1966 at the age of 86 at Tucson, Arizona. Sanger’s life was barely involved with activities of nursing, sex education, population control, eugenics activist, and birth control. Although she changed the world, Sanger engaged in activities that changed the world for the worse. Sanger is the best known leader in the world for developing, implementing, and monitoring birth control movement in the society. She was the catalyst of birth control movement momentous change not only for the American society, but for all women in the world. Sanger was married, but her marriage failed not because of lack of wealth, romance, respect, or love, but because of the interest of each other widened beyond that of each other, (Hodgson, 1994).


When her first marriage failed, she entered into another marriage where she married William Sanger in 1902. This begun the progress of her Planned Parenthood and birth control activities. She engaged in extramarital affairs that encouraged her to promote her thoughts in the society. Sanger even went ahead and encouraged her husband to engage in the extramarital affairs in order to bring birth control to the America. When in her mission, Sanger saw the concept of birth control as a tool that should be used in defining the class struggle in the society. Sanger was on the side of the poor where she advocated the issue of birth control as well as Planned Parenthood control, (Alexander, 1977).A number of factors contributed to the success of Margaret Sanger in the promotion of Planned Parenthood and birth control situation in the society. Sanger engaged in a number of talks about birth control methods in most part of the country.


This enabled most people have a chance to listen to her thoughts. She advocated abortion, sterilization, segregation in work camps, and euthanasia. Having being influenced by the work of Havelock Ellis, Sanger was successful in achieving her goals based on the few programs she launched. Another thing that contributed to her success is that she met people who were in need of such help. These were large families that could not have enough support from their own activities. Margaret Sanger had the love for nursing activities, and that is why she completed a nursing program at White Plains Hospital. She worked as a visiting nurse whose main focus was to develop and promote women’s health and education programs in the society, (Flaherty, 1992).


In the year 1912, she wrote a column on sex education for the New York Call publications. Although she faced several battles from the censors due to her writings, she managed to develop and express her thoughts in any manner she believed it was right. In 1917, Sanger expanded her support for birth control by establishing and promoting a monthly, birth control review. Sanger continued with her campaign on birth control activities, and in 1921, she established a campaign of publicity and education that was designed in a manner to win mainstream support of birth control. The national committee on federal legislation for birth control was formed by Sanger on 1929, to lobby for birth control. Sanger lived and died by her stand on the issue of Planned Parenthood and birth control belief, (Hodgson, 1994).


The purpose of Sanger contributions towards Planned Parenthood and birth control forum was to give the society a better living environment. She wanted to control the level of country’s population especially to those families that were not in a position to take care of their families. Most doctors during this time were very hostile on the issue of birth control. Although Sanger faced a number of challenges from the government as well as the strenuous opposition from the Catholic Church, she managed to win in court, and this is something that enabled the society control its population. She was consistent in her research activities and this played a great role in achieving her goals and results towards the issue of Planned Parenthood and birth control aspects in the society. Margaret Sanger success was influenced by a number of factors although she faced problems, rejects, and challenges when she was in the process of making things meet.


Sanger focused most of influence effort on the support that she received from the liberal wing of the eugenics movement, social workers, and the medical profession. This leader was strong despite all the challenges she faced. This contributed to her success in all the campaigns she developed as well as the movement she entered, (Lemus, 2009).Margaret Sanger is a unique leader of all times. She is a person who didn’t have faith in God. Sanger detested all people who believed in God. In one of her publications, she wrote, "I never liked to look at Jesus on the Cross. I could not see any good it did to keep looking at him. We could not help him as he had been crucified long ago." While others were looking on ways to help the poor, Sanger considered the poor as the slum dwellers who were working hard to increase the level of the population despite the fact that they were poor.


She argued that these slum dwellers would soon overrun their boundaries because of their population something that will contaminate the better elements of society with their inferior genes and diseases. Sanger efforts on the promotion and contribution to Planned Parenthood and birth control mission remain the hallmark of the entire situation. Her contributions were significant and still holds relevant stand in the current world. Sanger’s contributions assisted in funding research on educating specialists and public on birth control and providing health services and contraceptives to men and women in the society. Her contributions assisted in advancing access to family planning in most parts of United States and around the world, (Alexander, 1977).


I believe that women’s progress in the past decades either in economic power, in a political setting, in the common work place, and in the education setting can be liked to Margaret Sanger. I feel that Sanger played an important role in establishing and promoting Planned Parenthood and birth control campaigns simply because they enabled women to have a say in controlling their own fertility. One of the areas that I feel Sanger failed in her work is the fact that she refused to know and appreciate the suffering of Jesus Christ. Although she had strong and sound arguments on birth control, she could have liked her thoughts and religious aspects in developing better solutions to the society, (Flaherty, 1992).


 Conclusion

Sanger, the founder of Planned Parenthood, was a believer in eugenics, a supporter of Hitler’s Nazi party, a bigot, racist, and, she was an adulteress. She involved with activities of nursing, sex education, population control, eugenics activist, and birth control. Although she changed the world, Sanger engaged in activities that changed the world for the worse. She was a unique person who didn’t have faith in God. Sanger detested all people who believed in God. Her contributions have played an important role in population and birth control, in the society.


 Reference:

Alexander, J. (1977). Margaret Sanger: Pioneer of the Future. Saturday Evening Post249(4), 10-88

Flaherty, M. (1992). Woman of Valor: Margaret Sanger and the Birth Control Movement in America. National Review44(16), 42-43

Hodgson, D. (1994). Woman of Valor: Margaret Sanger and the Birth Control Movement in America (Book). Contemporary Sociology, 23(1), 98-99.

Lemus, C. K. (2009). The Selected Papers of Margaret Sanger, Volume 2, Birth Control Comes of Age, 1928-1939. H-Net Reviews in the Humanities & Social Sciences, 1-2


 

Published in Management
Saturday, 24 May 2014 14:04

Action Research

Action Research


Action research is a type of research that allows healthcare practitioners to investigate and analyze their work. Healthcare practitioners use action research to establish new knowledge related to healthcare practice.  Action research principles build on the capacity of healthcare practitioners thinking and working together to resolve a health care problem. This healthcare problem is resolved through information sharing, as well as sharing of skills and resources. It is inventing new knowledge that practitioners can improve their practice and service delivery (Vallenga, 2009).


Action research plays numerous roles in healthcare practice. First it increases the impact of those involved in the researcher i.e. researchers and practitioners. This is possible as the action research makes use of knowledge that already exists and in practice. Action practice also helps healthcare professionals to identify problems in their own areas of healthcare practice. It is by identifying these problems that effective corrective strategies can be implemented so as to improve the situation, in question.  Individual healthcare practitioners with identical concerns form research groups with the intention of improving healthcare practice.


 Action research also serves an educative role as it exposes healthcare practitioners to new knowledge and theories that they can implement in healthcare practice. Action research also help practitioners determine the conditions under which practical actions can be conducted within the healthcare environment. Action research also serves the role of initiating change in selected healthcare practices. There are numerous problems that healthcare practitioners face and through action research they are able to establish effective strategies to resolve these problems. The healthcare problems are resolved in the interest of research-based practice and professionalism. Changes can be initiated with the purpose of service improvement.


Reference

Vallenga, D. et. al. (2009). Action research: what, why and how. Acta Neurologica. Belgica.  Vol. 109, 81-90


 

Published in Education
Saturday, 24 May 2014 14:02

Ethical Theoretical Framework

Ethical Theoretical Framework


Ethical theories are the basis on which guiding principles are based. Ethical theories provide a person with guideline on how they should lead their lives. Personally, I lead my life using the deontological and utilitarian ethical theories. Every day, when I am faced with a tough decision that leaves me with a dilemma, I often chose a decision that will suit the majority of affected persons.


I believe the ideal action is one that favors the interest of the majority. In a hospital setting, for instance, a patient may give up on life hence refuse to take his medication.  Ion such a scenario, I strive to ensure that the patient takes the medication despite his refusal. If he refuses to take the medication orally, I use other alternatives e.g. intravenous injections. From a deontological perspective, I always ensure that all my actions are morally appropriate (Daniel, 2003). If, for instance, a patient is diagnosed with an infectious disease e.g. HIV/ AIDS and refuses to disclose it to the partner, I take it a personal initiative to ensure that the partner is informed.


I value patient confidentiality, but I believe it is morally wrong to hide medical information that may adversely affect another person. In such a situation, I ensure that I talk to the patient and convince him to bring his partner for discussions related to healthy living after diagnosis. My strong worldviews have seen me encounter very difficult situation in my profession. One such situations it the end of life situations in which the life support machine has to be switched off. I believe every person has the right to live, but some family members choose not to keep their kin suffering yet there is not cure. Such a decision is made based on the fact that the patient is in unbearable pain, yet he will never survive his injuries.


Reference

Daniel, R. (2003). Nursing fundamental. Cengage learning


 

Published in Sociology
Saturday, 24 May 2014 13:57

Medical Billing Fraud

Medical Billing Fraud


1. Improve current practice

More than never before, the medical practice of the modern day’s places physicians with greater demands and responsibilities as seen in the complex medical services, need to see a large number of patients and follow the strict regulatory rules. These challenges leave them with little time for billing and coding. Yet there is the need to keep adequate medical records that accurately charge insurers and use the appropriate billing codes as part of the financial condition of medical practice. Physicians rely on billing companies and office staff with the task of processing medical billing, and they do not do follow-ups or review bills before giving them to insurers for payment.


This practice has also seen some physicians being paid what they do not deserve because they are not involved in sufficiently overseeing medical billing pattern and coding practices. This article will address this practice in healthcare institutions. By showing the importance of collective auditing and monitoring of medical records and documenting of billing codes as a strategy towards reducing billing errors and attainment of compliance. Physicians have to be involved in this process so as to avoid financial risks such as loss of revenue, disciplinary action, financial sanction, exclusion from a government program partnership and financial sections.


Doctors can change their way of practice by involving patients and families in the ordering process. For instance when a doctor orders services and treatments, the patient has to know the particular aspects of this order instead of the current procedure where doctors directly send the orders to labs and other healthcare facilities. Involving patients will enable them to participate in right billing processes by confirming their treatment and that what is written on their medical records. From this action research, it will be a wakeup call for physicians, managers and leaders of healthcare organizations to take a personal responsibility in fighting fraudulent activities within their reach. They will be informed of their tasks in proactively conducting their businesses on high ethical standards.


Organizations will have a code o business ethics and conduct that require its members to report suspected abuse, fraud and waste. Therefore, the medical healthcare field will be the committee to correction, detection, waste, and abuse and fraud prevention in all their programs. Organizations will have to work closely and in collaboration with other health departments and insurers in designing procedures, and policies that help in the attainment of these objectives. Individual organization will have a role in enforcing theses procedures and policies through awareness, training and investigations efforts.


 How project impact on medical filed

Fraud impacts negatively to all sectors of healthcare. It leads to increased healthcare costs and taxpayers and patients are required to pay high premiums, compromise to healthcare quality and high costs in providing care. Dealing with fraud through action research studies like this one will inspire health care organizations to develop Special Investigation units that will investigate and monitor activities of their healthcare plans. These units will work close with the federal and state law enforcement agencies, provider community and insurance companies in preventing and detecting healthcare fraud. The staff members of the Special Investigations Units comprise of claims, investigator, clinical professionals, and trained data analysts who will closely watch abusive practices and detect fraudulent activities.


 practical implications

Through this action research, Tenet Healthcare Corporation will manage to suppress underperformance by learning how fraudulent billings occur and how to become a successful healthcare that follows the footsteps of its peers using analytics. This action research will begin by defining issues and setting the desired outcomes. To become useful the action research will ask questions not only those based on the subject matter data, but also data which targets the focus and objectives of in Tenet Healthcare Corporation, from the progress and performance perspective.Through learning from other top performance in the industry, it will be possible for in Tenet Healthcare Corporation to follow the right action path and establish a high functioning and competencylevel in analytics. Therefore resulting to meeting the management needs of this healthcare organization in cutting down cost of healthcare. This way the organization will understand the importance of analytics competency in gaining competitive advantage.


Members will also understand how top performing organizations use analytics to create differentiation, influence outcomes and boosts revenue growth. The organization will understand best practices to keep them accelerating or starting the journey of analytics competency on medical health billing records. Placing emphasis on regulatory presence through this action research will results into additional oversight, governance and accountability among the physicians at in Tenet Healthcare Corporation. The use of appropriate analytics in medical billing gives the organization better insights for achieving better outcome and demonstrating value, such as use of cheaper medical technologies and treatments, thus creating value to patients and their families (Baker, and Baker, 2010).


 Reference

Baker, J and Baker, R (2010) Health Care Finance: Basic Tools for Nonfinancial

Managers. Jones and Bartlett Publishers, Boston, Massachusetts.



Published in Business Studies
Saturday, 24 May 2014 13:50

Legal Age For Consent

Legal Age For Consent


 Is it ethical for girls being the “legal age for consent” to obtain an abortion or the “Plan B” without parental consent?

 Assignment Option 1

Teenage girls who are at the legal age to consent for sex should have the legal right to seek and obtain emergency contraception without having to seek the permission of the parent or guardian. The law in all states, including the District of Columbia does not require girls classified under the legal age to consent to provide notification to parents or seek their consent before having sex. In the same way, the same principle should apply when obtaining Plan B One-Step®, a contraceptive pill, from pharmacies and clinics.


Pregnancy occurs as a result of sexual intercourse. The irony is in allowing teenage girls to have sex legally and denying them the same legal right to procure emergency contraception. For example, if the legal age to consent is 15, for a specific state, the legal age to obtain emergency contraception should also be 15. Teenage pregnancy is a major problem in the United States. Consequences include a rise in abortion, health risks, and social consequences.In a majority of cases, teenage pregnancies are unintended (Falk, 2009). The likely implication is that teenage pregnancies will lead to abortion.


Therefore, failure to prevent pregnancies effectively will lead to the challenging issues of abortion, with respect to girls. Political and religious ideologies have differed and still differ with respect to abortion. It is a controversial topic which can best be handled at the stage of pregnancy prevention. Seeking consent or providing notification to parents before obtaining a contraceptive pill harms confidentiality, which is required for effective emergency contraception. Because the law grants girls between the age of 14 and 17 years the legal right to consent, depending on the state, the same right should extent to emergency contraception.


 Plan B One-Step® is a type of emergency pill that has been approved by the Food and Drug Agency (FDA) as a safe method of emergency contraception. Therefore, legally consenting 15-year old girls should have unrestricted access to emergency contraception, without the requirement to seek consent from parents.Abortion is a different case as it involves great risks to the health of girls and women (Milson, 2006). Adults have the capacity to make good and accurate decisions, in relation to why, how, and when to seek abortion. Teenage girls, however, do not have the maturity to make such decisions and deal with the consequences of abortion.


Therefore, teens below 18 should notify parents of their intention to carry out an abortion and obtain their consent. This is because abortion is an area that is difficult to regulate even for adults. It is an issue that carries moral concerns for every society. Sex education about sex, contraception, abortion, and STDs can improve the situation, in terms of prevention.While girls must exercise their rights to consent for sex and to obtain emergency contraceptives, they must also understand the risk of STDs and consequences of abortion (Overton & Colbert, 2010). Therefore, abortion must never be allowed without legal restrictions to teens. Abortion and use of contraceptives are highly controversial issues and, so, the government has the moral and legal obligation to create restrictions.


 References

Falk, G. (2009). Teenager’s unintended pregnancies and contraception. Linkoping: Linkoping University

Milson, I. (20o6). Contraception and Family Planning”. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier

Overton, S. & Colbert, T. (2010). Before It’s Too Late: What Parents Need to Know about Teen Pregnancy and STDs. Bloomington, IN: iUniverse


 

Published in Sociology
Saturday, 24 May 2014 12:51

Professional Moral Compass in Nursing

Professional Moral Compass in Nursing


A nurses’ professional moral conduct is essential as it plays a vital role in decision making processes. Nurses are often faced with tough situations where they have to make decisions that are ethical in nature. Ethical dilemmas arise when a nurse’s personal values, worldview and philosophy contradict each other. However, most nurses overcome ethical dilemmas in their line of duty by following the nurse’s code of ethics as provided by the American Nurses association. For this assignment, I will describe my professional moral compass and how it shapes my nursing practice.


 Philosophy, Morals, Ethics and Values in Nursing

 My nursing philosophy is to provide patients with holistic care ensuring that they recover physically, spiritually and emotionally. The nursing profession gives me an opportunity to make a difference is someone’s life. A patient depends on his or her nurse for care until he or she recovers. I, therefore, take pride in ensuring that patients and his immediate family receive quality care and are satisfied with the nursing services I render. My ability to provide holistic care lies in my ability to build a relationship with my patients (Ludwick, & Silva, 2000). A successful patient nurse relationship can be build based on trust. My patients have to trust my judgment and nursing practice. They also have to trust that all my actions are guided by my adherence to the ethical code of practice. As a nurse, I strive to maintain patient trust by providing patients with optimal and satisfactory patient care.


Personal cultural and spiritual values play a significant role of influencing nursing practice as it determines the nurses’ way of live and choices they make. Personal values are developed gradually from childhood, adolescence and adulthood. My personal values that I have integrated into nursing practice are respect, compassion and honesty. I handle all my patients and their next of kin with respect. I also exude compassion when handling my patients. I ensure that I encourage them to fight and remain strong so that they can overcome their illnesses. I am also honest in my practice as I prefer to give patients and their families a true picture of their medical condition. I also have a Christian religious background, and I use my religious beliefs to execute my nursing profession.


My Christian beliefs teach that we should practice love, honesty and accountability for actions. I execute these values in my nursing practice. I, for instance, take time to consider the consequences of all actions I undertake. This enables me to evaluate the potency of decisions before execution.Aspects of value, morals and ethics also play a considerable role in nursing practice. Values are enduring attitudes about the worth of a person, an idea or action. In nursing practice personal, professional and religious values influence the decision and actions that a nurse undertakes. Beliefs, on the other hand, represent the interpretations that a person holds as true (Murray, 2010). A person’s beliefs can be a source of conflict as they may differ/contradict with each other.


Finally, ethics refers to the rules that govern a nurse’s conduct. In nursing practice, ethical dilemmas occur when there is a difference is the perception of what is right and what is wrong. When faced with an ethical dilemma, in nursing practice, I normally resolve it by choosing the option that will result to minimal harm to a person. However, when I encounter complex ethical dilemmas, I often seek the guidance of physicians and the ethical committee so as to make the ethically appropriate decision. When, for instance, a patient refuses to take medication because he believes that his condition is incurable hence recovery is not an option, I seek the guidance of colleagues.


In conclusion, I value life and as a nurse I make it my priority to do all humanly possible so as to save the life of a patient. I believe the fundamental of nursing professional revolves around minimizing pain and suffering of patients, and upholding human dignity when handling patients (Ludwick, & Silva, 2000). I enjoy my nursing profession as I am able to apply my strong ethical, values and morals when handling patients. As a Christian, I believe every mankind has a purpose in life hence the need to safeguard life until when one has served his purpose. This personal philosophy has often been put to the test when executing my work as a nurse. 


Controversial issues such as abortion and end-of-life decision have always conflicted with my personal philosophy of upholding life. A patient has the right to decide whether he or she can end his life, as in the case of terminally ill patients. Similarly, a woman has the autonomy to decide whether to keep a pregnancy or have an abortion. Patients who choose to procure abortions or end their lives often leave me at conflict with my beliefs of life and not playing God by determining who lives and who dies. In such situations, I respect the patient’s wishes as prescribed in the nursing code of conduct. However, I engage other medical professionals in making such a decision. I also ensure that the patient is in the right mental status as the processes are irreversible.


 Reference

Ludwick, R. & Silva, M. (2000). Ethics: Nursing around the world. The online journal of issues in nursing. Vol. 5(3)

Murray, J. (2010). Moral Courage in Healthcare: Acting Ethically Even in the Presence of Risk. The Online Journal of Issues in Nursing.Vol. 15, No. 3


 

Published in Nursing

Stealing to Feed the Family: Right or Wrong


Stealing is an illegal act that is punishable by law hence the father who engages in the act of theft so as to feed his family is breaking the law. If caught, the father would be punished due to the violation of law. However, the circumstance under which the father stole would present a dilemma worth discussing. It is the responsibility of the father to take care of his family and provide for them. It would be wrong for the father to ignore that the fact that his family is starving and instead watch them die. The community and society, as a whole, will also be at a dilemma on whether to charge the man or set him free (Gensler, 2011). The man committed the crime of theft; however, it was for a good cause as his actions probably saved his family from starvation. If the community chooses not to punish him, others may be encouraged to commit the same crimes.


Similarly, if he is punished, society would seem to support the option of neglect and starving a family to death. However, society may ultimately be forced to take legal action on the father as they are numerous alternatives that he could have sort for food for his family. Such a decision would be made on a legal basis rather than a moral stand point. It is illegal to pick someone else’s commodities without their permission and persons found stealing are liable to arrest and punishment. Society would sympathize with the man and even offer his alternative modes of seeking food such as a job or food stamps, but since he broke the law, arrest and punishment is mandatory (Gensler, 2011).


 Reference

Gensler, H. (2011). Ethics: contemporary introduction. Routledge


 

Published in Sociology
Saturday, 24 May 2014 12:47

Ethical Dilemma

Ethical Dilemma


An ethical dilemma is a conflicting situation that involves making a decision between two moral actions. The conflict manifests itself in that adhering to one action automatically violates the other action and vice versa. An ethical dilemma leaves a person with the problem of having to make a decision that shows moral character especially when faced with a complex situation. Ethical dilemmas are further complicated by the fact that they are unpredictable and unforeseeable hence not possible to prevent the situation before it occurs. Health care professionals such as nurses are often faced with ethical dilemmas, on a regular basis, due to the nature of their profession (Basavanthappa, 2003).


Ethical dilemmas demonstrate various characteristics. The first is that there is no right and wrong in ethical dilemmas. Actions are based on a moral decision. Consequences of ethical dilemmas also bear significant consequences on a person and society as a whole thus the need to keep the needs and safety of affected persons first. Ethical dilemmas also leave a person with the task of making a choice between two undesirable alternatives that offer different courses of action.Ethical dilemmas differ from other situations especially when these situations could lead to harm.


For instance some people may refuse modern medication due to their beliefs in traditional medicine or due to influences from their religious beliefs. Such a situation leaves a healthcare professional in a dilemma as upholding the patient’s autonomy might results to the patient’s death. The issues of confidentiality also leave nurses in a dilemma especially if they desire to enquire for assistance from peers and colleagues (Basavanthappa, 2003).  A patient’s right to privacy cannot always be upheld in health situations that jeopardize others. For instance, a contagious disease must be reported so as to avoid further spread.


 Reference

Basavanthappa, B. (2003). Nursing administration. Jaypee Brothers Publishers


 

 

Special Rights and Responsibilities for Individuals with Hearing Loss


Hearing loss is the most common form of impairment in the world. It is estimated that over 275 million people around the world have hearing loss (World Health Organization, 2012). Hearing affects a critical element in human development and human interaction. Thus, people with hearing loss are at high risk of being excluded from society. In many societies, deaf person are already excluded from participating in life activities by attitudinal and environmental barriers.  A set of specific rights have been established in order to address and eliminate these barriers and enable deaf persons to fully participate in societal activities. The developmental conception of social welfare recognizes that some members of society need socially provided services in order to enhance their capacity to participate in society and maintain desirable standards of living (Dolgoff & Feldstein, 2012). The specific rights seek to address the welfare of deaf persons in order improve the capacity.


 Fundamental Rights

Fundamental human rights and freedoms apply to every person regardless of his physical status, sex, or backgrounds (Hauland & Allen, 2009). The rights include autonomy to make own decisions, right to participate fully in society, right to be treated with dignity, and freedom of expression. These are universal rights that need to apply to every person.


 Specific Rights

The social model of disability proposes that disability arises from interaction between impaired person and the environment and attitudinal barriers created by the societal (Shakespeare & Watson, 2002). Disability is not a function of the physical condition of the impaired person but rather a function of the social barriers that this person is exposed. These barriers include lack of respect for deaf people’s culture and linguistic identity, limited acceptance and use of sign language, and lack of recognition. These societal barriers hinder people with hearing loss from enjoy the basic and fundamental human rights hence, the need for specific rights and responsibilities. Specific rights and responsibilities are designed to address the disadvantages imposed by society on people with hearing loss.


 Right to Representation in Decision making Organs

One of the specific rights for people with hearing impairment is the right to be represented in key decision making organs such as legislative bodies, local authorizes, school boards and many others (Hauland & Allen, 2009). People with hearing loss have a right to autonomy. This implies that deaf persons should be given the space to make decisions and direct their own live. However, the autonomy of this group is undermines through political processes. In order to address this disadvantage, people with hearing impairments have a right to representation in legislative organs and key decision making institutions (UNESCO, 2013). This representation gives people with hearing loss the chance to influence policies and programmes that affect their interest.


 Acceptance of Deaf People as Part of Human Diversity

Deaf people have a right to be accepted and treated with dignity. In society, people accept that there are diverse groups of people. This includes males and females, members of different racial and ethnic groups, and members of different sexual orientation. However, people with hearing loss are often not considered as part of this diversity. Society has always treated people with hearing problems as subhuman (Allen, DeLuca & Napoli, 2007). They viewed that as incomplete person rather viewing them as unique culture.


This specific right seeks to restore dignity among people with hearing loss. It seeks to ensure that people with hearing loss are recognized as culture and part of human diversity. This right seeks to ensure that people with hearing impairment are accommodated in different areas, just as people from different genders and cultures are accommodated in different areas of life (Hauland & Allen, 2009). Thus, society has the responsibility of providing intermediaries and live assistance such as professional sign language interpreters, guides and readers, in order to facilitate access to building and other public utilities.


 Linguistic Human Rights

People with hearing loss also have the freedom to self expression and opinion (World Federal of Deaf, 2010). This includes the freedom to seek and receive information and express opinions. However, this freedom is undermined by lack of acceptance of sign language, Braille and other alternative forms of communication, as part of human diversity. This group experiences difficulties in accessing information and expressing their opinions because society does not recognize their language. This right is meant to address this challenge. It seeks to ensure key institutions such as government agencies, learning institutions, and communication firms recognize sign language and Braille as an important part of society (UNESCO, 2013).


It seeks to ensure that these communication elements are incorporated in the process of conveying information within society. The society has the responsibility of promoting the status of sign language in order to facilitate the acceptance of this language.  Today, there is growing acceptance of sign language in deaf education (Hauland & Allen, 2009). Many societies are adopting education approaches that use sign language as an essential part of communication. Sign language should also be available in all languages in order to promote usage of this language. For instance, in the United States, also need to incorporate Spanish language since there is a significant section of the population that speaks Spanish only.


 Right to Inclusive Education

Another fundamental right is education (Hauland & Allen, 2009). Countries have the responsibility of ensuring that persons with hearing loss are not excluded from the education system on the basis of their impairment. Thus, people with hearing loss have the right to be accommodating in the learning environment just like other students are accommodated. Inclusive education enables learning institutions to accommodate children with various forms of disability in the least restrictive environment.


In the United States, special education is implemented on a student-to-student basis, in what is known the Individualized Education Program (IEP) (The US Department of Education, 2000). In this program, stakeholders in the child education are assigned the responsibility of assessing the educational needs of a given child and develop a tailor-made plan for meeting these needs. The plan has measurable goals with guide the implementation process. This program is designed to ensure that persons with impairments are able to get meaningful outcomes out of the education system. The right to education is enshrined in the convention of Rights of Persons with Disabilities.


 Right to Vocational Training

            In addition to inclusive basic education, deaf persons have a right to receive vocational training and long life learning (Hauland & Allen, 2009). Vocational training includes university and college level education. While there are no universities that have policies that prevent the enrollment of deaf persons, many universities do not provide services that accommodate the learning needs of deaf students. Many universities and other high learning institutions do not provide sign language interpreter or Braille (World Federation of Deaf, 2010). Lack of support services is a significant barrier to achievement of vocational education by deaf persons.


 Right to Work and Employment

Deaf persons have the right to participate in society. This includes the right to make economic and social contribution to society (World Federation of Deaf, 2010). They also have the right to earn a living and become independent. This specific right enables deaf person to realize the fundamental rights that have been mention above by ensuring that deaf persons are not discriminated during employment. Article 27 of the Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disability stipulate that persons with disabilities should be given access to technical and vocation skills, placement services and continuing training (Hauland & Allen, 2009). In order to promote this right, society has a responsibility of ensuring that employment barriers are eliminated. These barriers include lack of resources to support disabled people within the work premise, lack of information and support for employers, and lack of person centered support for persons with hearing impairments.  


 Right to Access Services

Deaf persons have a right to access services such as transport, information, banking, legal services, government and other services (Hauland & Allen, 2009). A key element in the provision of quality services is the availability of sign language interpreters. Deaf persons rely heavily on sign language to communicate. This means that, without a sign language interpreter, there will be a significant gap in communication between the service provider and the deaf person. This gap in communication can hinder accessibility to essential services by people with hearing impairments. Therefore, society has a responsibility of ensuring that essential service providers have sign language interpreters. Banks, mass media such television stations and public offices should have language interpreter in order to promote accessibility for deaf people. Many television stations have adopted the use of sign language and captioning in order to accommodate the needs of deaf persons.


 Societal Responsibilities

Language is the main element that distinguishes humans from other members of the animal kingdom (Allen and Napoli, 2007). It is also a significant part of human development since development takes place through social interaction. Hearing loss hinders the ability of individual to interact meaningfully with other members of society if proper measures are not put in place. In order to promote effective development, it is important to identify hearing loss early and address the linguistic needs of the child.Societal has a responsibility of ensuring that people with hearing impairment are able to access natural language. This is achieved by ensuring that this group can access technologies that would assist them to interact with other members of society (Hauland & Allen, 2009).


These technologies include hearing aids and Braille. The society also has a responsibility of employing special education teachers in order to support the inclusion of deaf persons into the education system. Training of special education teachers is a major priority since education has the potential of changing other aspects of the life of a deaf person. Universities also need to invest in services and infrastructure needed to promote learning among deaf persons.  Members of society also have a responsibility for ensuring that people with hearing loss are accommodating into existing social structure. One of the responsibilities of other members of society is learning the deaf culture and language. People with hearing loss cannot communicate with other people, if other people do not understand sign language.


This means that society must make an effort to make sign language part of day-to-day communication in order to accommodate deaf people. Another responsibility of society is to ensure that persons with hearing loss who can work are provided with personalized assistance (Hauland & Allen, 2009). The society should also ensure that those who cannot work are given support allowances and other services. The society should also enact policies that protect deaf people from discrimination at the workplace. Over half the countries that ratified the Convention on the Right for Persons with Disability have no laws that prohibit discrimination of persons with disabilities during employment.


 Conclusion

Hearing loss is the most prevalent for of impairment in the world (Word Health Organization, 2012). This impairment affects an important cognitive function thus affecting the development of an individual. Developmental problems among people with hearing loss are compounded further by negative attitude and environment that these people are exposed. In order to safeguard the welfare of deaf persons and promote their capacity to participate in society, specific rights are required. These rights ensure that the needs of deaf persons are accommodated in critical areas of life.    


 References

Allen, S. DeLuca, D. & Napoli, D. (2007). Societal Responsibility and Linguistic Rights. Journal of Research in Education. 17: 41- 53

Dolgoff, R. & Feldstein, D. (2012). Understanding Social Welfare: A Search for Social Justice. USA, Pearson Publisher

Hauland, H. & Allen, C. (2009). Deaf People and Human Rights. Retrieved from http://www.wfdeaf.org/wp-content/uploads/2011/06/Deaf-People-and-Human-Rights-Report.pdf

Shakespeare T. & Watson N. (2002). The Social Model of Disability. Journal of Research in Social Science and Disability. 2: 9 -28

The US Department of Education (2000). A Guide to the Individualized Education Program. Retrieved from http://www2.ed.gov/parents/needs/speced/iepguide/index.html

The World Health Organization (2012). Promoting Ear and Hearing Care through CBR. Retrieved from http://www.who.int/pbd/deafness/news/CBREarHearingCare.pdf

UNESCO (2013). Access for People with Disabilities. Retrieved from http://www.unesco.org/new/en/communication-and-information/access-to-knowledge/access-for-people-with-disabilities/

World Federal of Deaf (2010). Education Rights for Deaf Children. Retrieved from http://www.equalrightstrust.org/ertdocumentbank/policy_child_ed.pdf


 

Published in Sociology

Culture Shock among International Students


It is common for international students to experience culture shock during the initial periods of their stay in foreign countries. This is generally negative emotions associated with anxiety, insecurity and disorientation, usually brought about by unfamiliar environment. Various ideas have been generating concerning how to manage culture shock. However, these traditional ideas have their limitation. This paper proposes a creative solution to solving the culture shock problem that entails keeping an open mind and living each day at a time. Culture shock is usually brought about by several factors.


One of these factors is the absence of values, practices, norms and behaviors that a person was used in the home countries. Different countries have different cultural settings. Therefore, people in different countries are bound to have differences in values, norms and behaviors. A person is likely to experiences culture shock when the culture of the destination country differs significantly from the culture of the home country. This is mainly because the student will try to compare home practices and practices with the destination country thus amplifying the differences.


Having an open mind is the best approach of minimizing culture shock. Keeping an open mind will enable the student to accept and appreciate everything he encounters in the destination country (Maddux, Adam & Galinsky, 2010). It will enable the student to appreciate new experiences without passing judgment about these experiences. Keeping an open mind will enable the student to become an objective observer rather than interpret the new experiences using the values of the home country. Keeping an open mind will also enable the student to understand the local people and their behaviors (Maddux, Adam & Galinsky, 2010).


The student will be in a position to understand and appreciate the local culture when they remain objective.   Another factor that leads to culture shock is anticipation. Marx (2001), in her book Breaking through Culture Shock, proposed that students should try to anticipation local culture as a strategy for minimizing culture shock. However, anticipation can be a significant cause of culture shock. This is because, in most cases, students get experiences that are different from what they had anticipated once they arrive in the destination country.


This is mainly as a result of basing their anticipation on inaccurate information and stereotypes. Inconsistencies between what the students had prepared to experience and their actually experiences become a significant source of anxiety and discomfort.This paper recommends that instead of anticipating local cultures students should go to their destination country and live each day at a time. They should discover new experiences offered by the destination country as these experiences take place. Going into a foreign country with an open mind will minimize expectations, therefore, avoiding disappointments when expectations are met (Maddux, Adam & Galinsky, 2010).


Having an open mind will also enable the student to appreciate the new environment.Proponents of traditions solutions may disapprove this creative solution by arguing that keeping an open mind will discourage students from preparing themselves for the new life and experiences. However, this is contrary to what is advocated in this proposed solution. This paper does not suggest that students should not find information about the destination country. It is important to explore basic information such as weather, cost of living, security information and others.


However, this solution discourages students from attempting to anticipate destination cultures and experiences since this leads to the creation of inaccurate and unrealistic expectations. This leads to disappointment when these expectations are not met.In conclusion, culture shock is a common problem among international students. Many students experience anxiety, disorientation and insecurity when they go to unfamiliar environments. Traditional sources recommend solutions such as attempting to anticipate destination culture. However, this paper proposes that the best strategy for dealing with culture shock is to keep an open mind and live each day at a time.


 References

Maddux, W. Adam H. & Galinsky, A. (2010). When in Rome, Learn Why Romans do what they Do. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin. 36 (6): 731- 741

Marx, E. (2001). Breaking through Culture Shock. USA. Nicholas Brealey Publishing


 

Published in Education
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