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Items filtered by date: May 2014

Friday, 30 May 2014 12:44



Politics is a means to an end that influence public policies. Nurses’ political involvement leads to the formulation of public policy.  Therefore, if nurses want to influence policy outcomes, they have to be involved in politics.   Nurses can exert pressure political pressure in the workplace by affecting the development of institutional policies, the community through community activism on local boards, professional organizations by participating on committees or serving as officers and government through involvement in campaigns and voting.  Nurses hold a highly respected and trusted stature in the society.

The society views them as professionals who are greatly interested in the welfare of others.  Their role in health promotion is undisputed.  The support of such issues can affect the world and state health greatly. Therefore, nurses have a responsibility to investigate and participate in political activities. According to Carolyn (2009), a significant part of every nurse’s responsibility is to act as a client’s advocate.  Nurses encounter cases of political-ethical tension emanating from clashes between cost-effectiveness   and quality of care, and between personal values and professional ethics and goals.  Professional nursing practice obligates individual nurses to participate in public policy formulation part of their professional work.

 Participating in political actions and awareness campaigns enable nurses to shape the health and welfare of the community and enable them effectively participate in their contracts with citizens.  Nurses have valuable, extraordinary knowledge and skills, which position them for political involvement and the formulation of policies.  Occupational and environmental health nurses play a great responsibility in influencing public policies related to the American workforce by using political action to ensure effective communication. The complex health care policies demand the knowledge and efforts of organized groups and the dedicated efforts of individuals.

Various nursing associations such as the American Nurses Association are instrumental in advocating and protecting rights and interests of nurse in all governmental levels.  The increased nurses’ needs and community changes have resulted into the emergence of other nurses organizations based on specialty such as setting-specific nursing, system-specific disorders or conditions, ethnic-cultural-specific, and education level specific (Mathews, 2012).  These nurses’ organizations play great roles in political advocacy, informing nurses, disseminating professional knowledge and professional development of nurses.  The advocacy of these organizations is motivated by moral and ethical principles of nursing and seeks to influence policies by working with political, economic and social systems in the state for ideas or causes that can result to allocation of resources that promote nursing and healthcare (Matthews 2012).

The associations are created to articulate the values of nursing, integrity, practice and policies.  The American Nurses Association (ANA) is the lead organization that deliberates on these ideas and develops them based on the nursing codes of ethics and framework documents that serve as the basis of nursing (Code of Ethics, The Social Policy statement and the scope and standard of practice in nursing). Each specialty organization advocates for nurses according to the goals of its members, specialty and the setting of the practice.  They educate the policy makers, public, health care administrators and nursing professionals on certain issues. Nursing organizations conduct or sponsor annual state legislative days, offer internships and fellowship on policies, and conduct policy workshops designed to give nurse information on current issues affecting nursing and health care. 

These organizations also provide advocates with access to experienced nurses who are willing to serve as mentors to young nurses.Joining a professional organization is an important way of ensuring individual advocacy efforts.  Professional nurses organizations have more resources, and can strategize effectively to bring nurses’ perspective in health policies.   They are able to monitor policies and offer members ways to learnt about the policies.  They are also sources of reliable information related to policies and issues surrounding nursing profession.  The organizations also support individuals who advocate positive nursing policies.  These organizations enjoy the strength of numbers, which enable them to exert positive pressure on the legislative arena. They have legitimate power to act on behave of nurses, referent power and reward power due the size of resources they have.


Abood  S. (2007). "Influencing Health Care in the Legislative Arena". The Online Journal of Issues in Nursing. Vol. 12, issue 1; p2

Carolyn Clark (2009). Creative nursing leadership and management. Jones & Bartlett Publishers. MA, USA.

Matthews J. (2012) "Role of Professional Organizations in Advocating for the Nursing Profession." The Online Journal of Issues in Nursing.  Vol. 17, issue 1, p3


Published in Sociology

Problems And APN Interventions In Pregnant Women With Diabetes.

The role and use of advanced practice nurses has greatly expanded in the global as a result of the increased need for care providers with increased knowledge and skills.  This increase and expansion of the role of advanced practice nurses, for patients with chronic health problems and high risk of poor outcomes, has been important for patients with limited access to care. Diabetic women during pregnancy are such a group of patients that requires the attention of nurses. Negrato & Brito notes that diabetes is the most common metabolic disorder affecting pregnancy.  According to Noctor & Dunne (2011), some of the predisposing factors for gestational diabetes include a family history, body mass index greater than 30, maternal age above 30 years, previous unexplained perinatal death, current glycosuria and long-term use of steroid.

As the prevalence of diabetes is increasing, the number of pregnancies complicated by pre-existing diabetes or gestational diabetes is rising.   Diabetic women during pregnancy encounter many pregnancy discomforts.  For those who enter pregnancy with diabetes, maintaining appropriate diets and blood sugar is challenging given the increasing physiological changes, including those that compromise insulin use.  Women suffering from gestational diabetes must learn about diabetes and how to manage it. According to Dorothy et al (2012), most of previous research on pregnant diabetic women has focused on providers’ directives regarding adherence to specific medical treatment plans such as monitoring blood sugar and the use of insulin.   The postpartum management is focused on directives to stabilize preexisting diabetes and monitoring the effects of gestational diabetes.

 Health problems and APN interventions.

Dorothy et al (2012) conducted a content analysis of interaction logs containing the process of APN care during tow clinical trials. The study compared health problems and advanced practice nursing (APN) interventions in two types of APN care provided to childbearing women. The study explored two models of care that included the additive APN care and the APN substitution care. Results of the study indicate that, the 41 women involved in the study suffered 61,004 problems with the majority of the problem being experienced antenatal.  The problems were identified and classified using the Omaha system’s Problem scheme.  Each of the problems was assigned to Omaha scheme as environmental, psychosocial, psychological and health-related behaviors.

 Health-related behaviors are the most common problems. Antenatally, psychological problems were many in the APN substitution group. In postpartum, physiologic problems are the majority followed by psychological problems.  During antenatal, diabetic women suffers from environment-related problems from income and sanitation. They suffer psychosocial problems related to caretaking or parenting, and child neglect. They include challenges in coping with body changes, rest, exercise, diet and fearing regarding delivery. In addition, women also suffer from elevated blood pressure, cramping, coughing and difficulties in breathing. The lead health-related problems include nutrition, prescribed medication regimen and health care supervision.

  Nutrition problems include elevated blood sugar, weight gain and adherence to the prescribed diet.Most of the APN interventions are provided antenatally. The predominance interventions in both antenatal and postpartum include health teaching/guidance and counseling, treatment and procedures, case management and surveillance. The leading surveillance interventions include reporting and intervening with laboratory findings such as blood sugar, hemoglobin and white blood cells.  The case management focused on medical or dental care and communication.The study offer important insight about APN practice in caring for women with diabetes in pregnancy and potential differences between additive and substitution model of care.

The additive model involved collaboration between APN and physicians, APN care was added t o the routine physician prenatal and postpartum care. In the APN substitution model, antenatal and postpartum care was shared equally between APNs and physicians.The study provided a range of problems encountered by diabetic women.  The distribution of health problems in APN reflects physiologic problems of women with diabetes in pregnancy.  These women require close monitoring of their health behavior so as to optimize maternal and newborn outcomes.  The psychological problems reflect problems often encountered by low socioeconomic women and single. Surveillance is the predominant APN function in providing care to women with diabetes.

 In addition, APN provides health teaching, guidance and counseling. According to the study, the role of APN in treatment and procedures was minimal.  The APN surveillance, early detection and focused health teaching and counseling of women, regarding prevention and early detection of problems increases pregnancy outcomes and reduces health related charges.   The role of APNs, knowledge, well-developed assessment skills and effective teaching and communication play an important role in reducing morbidity and health care charges.Therefore, when APNs share care with physicians, they intervene differently in type and number of interventions.  The broad skills and the depth of their understanding in clinical practice, health systems, family and personal issues allow nurses to intervene early and effectively.


Dorothy B., JoAnne M., Hanna J et al (2012). Health problems and APN interventions in pregnant women with diabetes. Pacific Rim International journal of nursing research. Vol.16, issue 2: p 85-96.

Negrato, A.  Marilia Brito (2013). Historical facts of screening and diagnosing diabetes in pregnancy. Diabetology & Metabolic Syndrome. Vol. 5 Issue 1, p1-8

Noctor E. & Dunne F (2011). A practical guide to pregnancy complicated by diabetes. Diabetes & Primary Care. Vol. 13, issue 5, p22


Published in Nursing

The National Institute Of Standards And Technology

NIST issues Preliminary Cybersecurity Framework  by Steve Caponi & Elizabeth Sloan. Accessed from http://www.mondaq.com/unitedstates/x/275074/Data+Protection+Privacy on 11/28/2013.

The national institute of standards and technology (NIST) issued the preliminary cybersecurity Framework as required under section 7 of the President executive order of February 2012 aimed at improving critical infrastructure cybersecurity.  The order was promoted by the increased cyber intrusion into critical infrastructures.

 These intrusions are threatening the national and economic security of the country.Critical infrastructure refers to systems and assets both physical and virtual, so vital to the United States that the incapacity or destruction of such as a system would have debilitating impacts on security, national economic security, and national public health or safety. They include infrastructures in the energy sector, finance and banking, healthcare, transportation, telecommunication, defense and utilities.  The executive order also called for policy coordination, sharing of cybersecurity information, protection of privacy and civil liberties, and the development of a framework to reduce cyber risks to critical infrastructures. The framework includes standards, procedures and processes for reducing cyber risks to critical infrastructures.

 The executive order requires the NIST issue the final version of the framework in 2014 February. Industry players are welcomed to give their contribution in the course of the month of November.  Therefore, institutions are expected to conduct a gap analysis of their cybersecurity, privacy, and data governance management to identify areas they need to comply with the NIST framework.The preliminary framework is organized into five overarching cyber functions that include identity, protect, detect, respond and recover. Each of the above functions has numerous categories that are related to programmatic activities. They include activities such as “asset management,” “access control, detection processes.

 Aim of the framework

These standards will be voluntary and not a one-size-fits-all.  This is because each institution has different and unique risks.   The aim of the standards is not to replace existing organizational cybersecurity programs but to complement. The goal of the standards is to help improve existing cybersecurity protocols and create a reference for establishing new programs.  It is intended to prioritize flexible, repeatable, performance-based and cost effective programs.  They will serve as best practices for companies and agencies in the sectors included in the definition of critical infrastructure.   The standards are intended to provide specific guidance for detecting and responding to attacks, mitigating the fallout from cyber incidents and managing overall cyber risks.

 Characteristics of the framework

The framework provides a common language and mechanism for organizations to:

Describing current cybersecurity posture

Describing their target state for cybersecurity

Identifying and prioritizing opportunities for improvement in risk management

Assessing the progress toward the target state

Fostering communications among internal and external stakeholders

 Structure of the framework

The preliminary framework is organized into five overarching cyber functions that include identity, protect, detect, respond and recover. Each of the above functions has numerous categories that are related to programmatic activities. They include activities such as “asset management,” “access control, detection processes.

 It is a risk-based approach composed of the framework core, the framework profile, and the framework implementation tiers.

Framework core is the compilation of standards intended to foster the communication of cyber risks across an entire organization

The framework profile is a snapshot of an organizations current security readiness, which can be used to track progress in implementing security protocols.

The framework implementation tier describes how a specific organization manages its cybersecurity.


Published in Social Sciences

  Improved Automation of Network Management Operations

 Network management is fundamental to the well-being and operation of modern networks (Verma, 2010). It accounts for 80% of the budget allocated to IT services (Marshall, 2008). It is also responsible for 62% of system outages (Ibid). However, network management operations rely on relatively rudimentary technologies. Network changes are performed mostly via command line interfaces that are archaic and low-level. Computer networks continually become large scale, complex, and dynamic. The result is that human operators become short-handed at a similar rate. To be able to manage these networks, companies, schools, information centers, and other organizations require a large number of people to perform daily activities related to network management. Examples of tasks include registering new devices, configuring routing policies, assigning network addresses, trouble shooting, setting up firewalls, and maintaining reliable and efficient network connectivity.

The problem of complexity of modern networks is heightened by strict deadlines. This increases the probability of human errors (Farrel et al., 2011). Therefore, network misconfigurations are common, creating profound effect on global high-value services and computer infrastructure. Misconfigurations degrade networks or render them completely nonfunctional. These challenges are costly, depending on the security of information. The challenge related to misconfigurations has increased with the advent of new hosting platforms such as cloud computing that provide data center resources to customers. These are platforms that are increasingly becoming popular for running business applications and internet websites.

The common, principal aim of network operators is to minimize the negative impact of misconfigurations, which depends on several factors, including network size, problem duration, time of the day, and others (Verma, 2010). Production systems may require prevention of misconfigurations from occurring rather than minimizing the impact. The problem is that this not always possible owing to dynamic network-changes. In order to address the overwhelming complexities of network management and the overwhelmingly high demand for reliable networks, improved automation systems are needed to provide assistance to network management operators through a reduction in operator workload and prevention of the always undesirable network configurations. 

In order to improve the efficiency of the automation support, I propose two automation system changes to network management operations. The first involves the introduction of a system that facilitates the design and execution of automated network operations while integrating network-wide checks that prevent misconfigurations. The second proposed system allows more automated network configurations and prevention of misconfigurations while making operator workload minimal. These system proposals are based on an assumption that the key to building accurate, automated network management systems is utilizing formal abstractions to capture domain knowledge, in order to direct management operations and incorporate network-wide property checks.

The aims of the proposed network management changes are to contribute to the protection of information from accidental modification or destruction, to improve the protection of information from deliberate modification or destination, and to improve availability and efficiency in sharing information or data to authorized users.In summary, network management operations are naturally and increasingly difficult to timely and correctly manage. However, with abstractions such as database and others, new systems capable of capturing domain knowledge and reducing human involvement through automation of network management operations can be developed.


Farrel, A. et al. (2011). Network Management Know It All. Burlington, MA: Morgan Kaufmann Publishers

Marshall, P. (2008). Link Data: Global Mobile Forecast. Retrieved on November 19, 2013, from www.yankeegroup.com/search.do?searchType=author&id=9BF06CED75694D52

Verma, D.C. (2010). Principals of Computer Systems and Network Management. New York, NY: Springer


Published in Management
Friday, 30 May 2014 12:26

Management Of Information Security

Management Of Information Security

 About the company

Micros Systems, Inc. deals with the manufacturing and sells of property management systems and Computer-based -point- of- sales, (POS) and it targets the hospitality industry around the globe. This includes theme parks, hotels, restaurants, casinos, institutional feeding, specialty retail and cruise ships among other similar markets around the globe. MICROS Systems, Inc further provides its customers with services such as configuration and acquisition, system planning, remote and on-site installations, remote and on-site support, repairs and hardware, updates training, supplies and spare parts and manages the hosting of services and software for its customers.In the provision of these services, MICROS can sometimes take control and custody of some nonpublic sensitive information owned by its customers. In so doing, it is the responsibility of MICROS to protect this sensitive and private information of their customer when it’s under its control and custody.

Furthermore, all consultants, contractors, employees, customers, visitors, temporary employees, vendor personnel and visitors having accesses to IT facilities controlled or owned by MICROS or assets, information, networks and information systems, are expected to be responsible in protecting the data and assets that are vital for effective operation of the company’s business.The Enterprise Information Security Standard and Policy have the purpose of promoting and facilitating information security with the company’s enterprise worldwide. The information security policy statement indicates how the company can achieve its objectives of maintaining a high level of security. All users and company employees have to be aware of this policy information on security. The policy statement clearly shows how all users should use and access the information systems, facilities, assets and technology resources controlled and owned by MICROS Systems, Inc.

 Security Policies for MICROS Systems, Inc.

1. Access Management policy

A. Purpose

The Access management policy will help MICROS Systems, inc in ensuring that there are appropriate mechanisms that guide on legal and business requirements that guide on tracking, administration and control of use and access of company information and business systems owned by MICROS Systems Inc. this policy has the purpose to protect any unapproved and unauthorized activity that relates to distribution, retrieval, and destruction of this information as system.

B. Scope

Access Management policy affects any person using or accessing MICROS System, Inc. technology and information resources or facilities. These individuals include, but not limited to temporary employees, contractors, consultants, visitors, customers, vendor personnel and other persons working collectively or individually. The policy also covers all information systems, technology facilities and networks leased, controlled or owned by MICROS Systems, Inc. It also applies to other third party resources and equipments that are connected to this company’s networks, systems and facilities (Purser, 2004).

C. Policy

The Access Management policy is about the use and access of business and information resources that shall be administered and controlled by MICROS Systems, Inc. The Access Management policy will be guided by both legal and business requirements. It will establish a standard for the password and authentication access, standards for authentication administration and standards for third party access (Purser, 2004).

D. Enforcement

I. Punishments or rewards for breaking the policy

 Any form of activity or action that violates the Access Standards and Policy will automatically result to disciplinary action or even termination of contract or employment depending on the severity of the mistake. Users wishing to undertake an activity which can violate the Standard or policy have to request in written and verbal complaint to her or his manager and to the Human resource Department Management team about the issue. This has to be conducted by undertaking the act. Violation of the access security policy or any other security policy does constitute to breaching of trusts between MICROS Systems, Inc. and users of this company, information resources or other assets resources. This will lead to negative consequences, such as the end of contractual and employment relationships. Otherwise, who users who maintain integrity, confidentiality and proper use of the company’s resources, they will have positive relations with the company leading to long terms contractual and employment relationships. They will be trusted with other bigger responsibilities among other rewards.

 Ii. the policy enforced and monitored

This policy will be enforced by the Chief security Officer or any other appointed designate staff. All users and individuals who can gain access to MICROS Systems information resources and assets are given a prior notification in written form notifying them of this new policy. Any questions that the staff and non staff members will have about the information access policy or standards can ask the Chief Security Officer. The users of the company resources or those who can access including third parties are expected to notify the Chief security Officer whenever they think it is possible that the Access Standards and policy cannot be executed for any particular reason or a given situation.

The Chief Officer will then present a statement of risk to the individual accompanied, by alternative control measures, to compensate the earlier stated requirement for acceptance or review. The Chief security Officer has the power to provide users with Standards and policy variance depending on the risk statement. Whenever the Standard or Policy is violated the Chief Security Officer will be notified within a short period, and this is when he will determine the action that needs to be taken. The chief Security officer or his or her designate will be responsible for monitoring the access policy. The Standards and policy will be reviewed on an annual basis.

The policy enforcement team will reevaluate the policy to determine individuals violating the policy provisions. The team will also determine the rate at which cases of violations in access have decreased or increased since the passing of this policy (Dhillon, 2001).Policy enforcement actions involve actions aiming at resolving the noncompliant account to information resources or assets. This involves actions such as marking which means to mark an account that is disallowed or an account that does not comply with the attributed value. Users can also be suspected by deactivating an account that falls to comply with the set standards. Finally, there is the correction in which a noncompliant is corrected (Dhillon, 2001).

 E. Definitions

Access: means obtaining information and data from an IT system

F. Revision History

 I. When the policy created or changed

Based on the applicable law constrains, MICROS Systems, Inc. has the right to terminate or modify standards and policies at any time when deemed necessary without giving users or staff a notification. At an event when a policy cannot be executed on any reason or situation, a risk statement together with controls of compensation are presented to the Chief security officer for acceptance or review. The security Officer or his designate will then provide the Standard or policy variance according to the risk statement (Vacca 2010).MICROS System has revised its access control policy in three phases. This is because the Access enforcement and control are one element of the overall Security procedure that MICROS System undertakes as a measure of its extensible system.

The access control system is based on three main assumptions. First mechanism is about software-only procedure that ensures the safety of the code within an extensible system. This means that all codes respect the preserves and interfaces of the referential integrity. Second is that, since the mechanism of access control impacts on other operations of access controls, such as methods and procedures, it ensures that resources too need to be protected by hiding their internal state. The final correction touches on the binary interposition. This happens because the company’s access control mechanism affects operations on access control within the extensible system. Therefore, it assumes the presence of other mechanisms’ on binary interposition such as the dynamic patch jump tables (Vacca 2010).

 2. Information Security Organization Policy

A. Purpose

The Information Security Organization Policy has the purpose of describing the Information Security Department of MICROS System and how the management framework of this company manages and promotes information security performance in all its business units and the whole corporation.

 B. Scope

I. Who the policy effect                 

The Information Security Organization Policy applies to all individuals using and accessing MICRO Systems, Inc. such as, facilities and information technology resources. Individuals affected include contractors, temporary employees, consultants, vendor personnel, visitors, customers and other individuals. The policy all affect all equipments managed and owned by MICROS Systems, Inc. and other equipments used by third parties who are connected to the networks and systems of the company business (Tipton, and Nozaki, 2012).


The Information Security Organization Policy is concerned with ensuring there is an appropriate capability of the organization in promoting, treating and managing guidelines, procedures, standards, and security policies that support compliance to data privacy, network security, and regulatory compliance of the industry, security operations, security awareness and handling of security incidents (Vacca 2010).

 C. Enforcement

I. punishments or rewards are there for breaking the policy

Having a working successful security policy that has been enforced in an organization has its unique rewards to the organization. Policy assessment and compliance program have the benefit of helping MICRO Systems, Inc in enforcing information security that is able to deal will all the potential threats that originate internally or externally and can hinder the company from attaining its goals. The organization is also able to develop compliance tools, and it becomes possible to measure compliance automatically within the network.

Policy compliance is also related to data events on security given by other security sources, such as, firewalls instruction detection, anti-virus software, vulnerability assessment products and instruction detection systems (Tipton, and Nozaki, 2012).The failure of MICRO Systems, Inc to establish the Information Security Organization Policy means that the organization will fail to estimate the impact of security incidents and consequently tampers with the reputation, credibility and relationship that the company has with its key stakeholders. Therefore, the competitiveness and future success and stability of MICRO Systems, Inc will be negatively affected (Alexander, Finch and Sutton, 2008).

 Ii. How is the policy enforced and monitored?


After the establishment of an information security policy is completed and approved, enforcement starts. The efforts made in creating the policy have no impact unless this step is followed by sufficient enforcement and corporation. Policy assessment and compliance program are essential in helping the organization to enforce its information security policy. A review team on policy compliance shows whether the designed security control is used correctly and properly employed (Alexander, Finch and Sutton, 2008).

 Monitoring and assessment

The first step in establishing an effective Information Security Organization Policy is when the security department evaluates its information assets and identifies the sources of threats to the assets. This way the department will be able to know the assets that are most vulnerable to threats when compared to others. The department should also not consider the aspect of monetary value alone in determining the threats to its assets. It has to look at the bigger picture of how poor security mechanism can cost to the reputation of the whole organization of MICROS System Inc. Therefore, by determining both the intrinsic and monetary value the department will accurately gauge the work of its Information Security Organization Policy. In calculating the monetary value, the departments also consider the impact of loss when the systems, networks and assets data are compromised.

The intrinsic value can be estimated when the department considers how the security incidents can affect the relationships, reputation and credibility that MICROS System, Inc. will have with its stakeholders (Alexander, Finch and Sutton, 2008).In monitoring and assessing the potential threats, the department will have to look into the internal and external threats. External threats include aspects like Trojan horse, worms, viruses and attempts of hacking among other threats that have the potential of harming the security systems of the company. Internal threats that the department assesses and monitors includes surfing of Internet content that is objectionable, abuses of critical data and systems and inappropriate internet use. These threats originate from the inside perpetrators within MICROS Systems Inc. who have access to network systems of the company among other data assets (Alexander, Finch and Sutton, 2008).

Based on these threats to the company’s assets the next important step that needs to be undertaken by the department is the development of Information Security Organization Policy as the basic foundation in the assessment of risks. This way the department will succeed in weighing the company security exposure and the assessment enables MICROS System Inc. To decide if its information is adequately protected, under protected or overprotected. The goal of the assessment has to focus on minimizing expenses and at the same time ensuring that the organization is not exposed to unnecessary risks. The assessment and monitoring will help the department determine proper resource allocation once there is an effective security policy in place (Tipton, and Nozaki, 2012).

 D. Definitions

Compliance: is a set of assurance to guarantee that an organization complies with its set policies, such as security access and organization policy.

 E. Revision History

MICROS System, Inc has the ability to terminate and modify the Information Security Organization Policy and Standards at any time it feels necessary. This is done within the constraints of applicable regulation and laws, and it should be done by giving notices to the company stakeholders. Revisions have to be published and drafted with a date and this will give the users awareness on the policy status and age. This practice though has its challenges including legal issues especially when employees are still following an outdated policy. Therefore, the organization has to ensure that a change or revision of its policy and Standards on security is informed to new and old employees. Companies with a high rate of turnover have, in fact, faced significant challenges because employees tend to use outdated policies leading to legal issues. Therefore, MICROS System, Inc, in implementing this policy is expected to indicate the expiry dates of the policy and at the same time to prevent temporary policies becoming permanent (Whiteman, and Mattord, 2010).


As policies assists organizations in avoiding litigation and maintaining the high level of security, they have to know that employees need to be informed of these two policies and shown what is acceptable and not acceptable actions and behaviors within the organization. The development of these two policies, Information Security Organization Policy and Access Management policy will help MICROS System Inc. improve productivity of the business and avoid potentially embracing situations arising from security breaches. Employees are called to report any suspected or actual breaches of security to their regional security officers and managers immediately for the necessary actions to be taken.


Whiteman, M and Mattord, H (2010) Management of Information Security. Cengage Learning, p 152-53

Tipton, H and Nozaki, M (2012) Information Security Management Handbook, Sixth Edition, Volume 6. CRC PRESS, P 199

Alexander D, Finch A and Sutton, D (2008) Information Security Management Principles: An ISEB Certificate. BCS, the Chartered Institute p 98

Vacca J (2010) Managing Information Security. Syngress, p 190

Dhillon, G (2001) Information Security Management: Global Challenges in the New Millennium. Idea Group Inc p 222

Purser, S (2004) a Practical Guide to Managing Information Security. Artech House, p 89


Published in Sociology
Friday, 30 May 2014 12:23

Financial Analysis For Managers

Financial Analysis For Managers

Business performance can be evaluated through the use of various approaches. The use of these approaches depends on businesses environment, operation and methodology that gives them error and trial opportunities. Managers can benefit from financial analysis in giving them the foundation for evaluating the performance of their businesses. Managers can adopt the best means of attaining success. Managers have to be skilled in analyzing financial tools and statement so as to understand how their business decisions impact on the whole organization. Managers can use the cost-volume-profit analysis to understand the relationships between variable and fixed costs, the volume of sold and manufactured products and the sales profits.

This financial relationship will also involve the break-even analysis, contribution margin analysis and operational leverage. The data from financial statement will give managers a chance to perform the costs -volume -profit analysis. Managers will ask questions like what amount of sales do they need to attain break even, what would be the costs if suppliers increase their inputs and what steps they have to take when their sales volume increase or reduce, also what amount of sales is needed to achieve profits (Helfert, 2001).An analysis of CVP gives detailed snapshot of the company’s activities. This includes aspects like the cost of producing a product and amount to be produced.

Managers can then decide what elements will hold whenever the variables are change. For instance, changes can take place in materials costs and transportation expenses. The variable costs at the bottom line will be affected. The CVP analysis will give managers a chance to change a variable so as to ensure an ideal performance of the business is attained in the future.Contribution margin analysis is another financial tool that can help managers examines the percentages of the sales costs that remain after the variable costs payments are made. These payments include delivery charges, commissions and costs of goods. Managers can use this analysis to determining introduction, mix, pricing and product removal.

The analysis will also help managers determining the best and quantity of incentives to use for bonuses and commissions for sales. This ways product profitability and product mix will be attained. The break even analysis examines the sales volumes at which there is an even variable and fixed cost. Managers and owners have to consider the main figures in the calculation of the break-even aspects (Director 2012).Businesses do have slightly different leverages for operation based on their business models that are meant to compare sales and fixed costs. The businesses having high fixed costs have a large multiplier for their operating leverages.

This shows that a minimal growth in results to profits. Financial ratios analysis can help managers to find out the relationship between various sets of financial statements and show their parentage relationship. The five ratio categories include leverage, profitability, asset turnover and liquidity (Higgins, 2011). Owners and managers have to review these ratios after a specific period and will help them know the areas resulting to unfavorable trends. Benchmark ratios will be compared with the industry trends by reviewing these ratios. From the results managers can decide, on the means, to acquire a range of sources, such as risk management and industry specific organizations to help the business perform at the desired standard.


Higgins, R (2011) Analysis for Financial management. McGraw-Hill Education, p 340

Director S (2012) Financial Analysis for HR Managers: Tools for Linking HR Strategy to Business Strategy. FT Press, p 211

Helfert, E (2001) Financial Analysis Tools and Techniques: A Guide for Managers, p 235

Published in Management
Friday, 30 May 2014 12:19

Qualities Of An Effective Manager

Qualities Of An Effective Manager

There are ten main elements that define the characteristics of an effective manager. Under knowledge category, the elements include; Organization, Efficiency, Vision ability to plan and control. Under value category, the characteristics are trust, Sense of Perspective, Respect, positive attitude and ability to motivate. An effective manager can take these elements and these characteristics do define them as being effective leaders. The characteristics under the tow categories on value and knowledge helps managers to successfully carryout their business. For example, a manager with vision is an individual with the role of overseeing his employees and ensuring that their work is directed towards the business goal and success (Weth 2007).

Employees have to be directed in all stages of their work through ensuring that they are in the right track and that they receive the guidance they needed. The manager plays a significant role in a company by being responsible of ensuring that there is a smooth running of the business and that the business is efficient. They have the role of ensuring that all elements of the business are well organized such as data is well stored and can be easily received. Equipments and other machineries are in the right location, and that he knows when and how to use them. A company with a manager who is organized will experience the benefit of saving time and preventing clumsiness.

Control is another essential element of a manager.A manager needs to control employees and know the jobs they are doing at any given time. He or she assigned tasks and responsibilities to the managers and ensures that work do not get out of control. A manager also needs to be a good planner by having a schedule that n shows a set of tasks to be done and the time to do these tasks. This helps the company complete its top priority projects and have plans for future goals of the company.A manager also needs to motivate employees. This begins when he is motivated about his work and will be able to extend this to his team. Therefore, positive attitude comes to play.

A manager with a positive attitude will always encourage his team to work towards the best results and that no task is difficult for them. Therefore, a manager has to have confidence of them and have the belief that they can do even the most complex duties. Respect is another vital characteristic for an effective manager a manager who respects his team will be respected. Respect among each member of a company is gained, through smooth communication and ability, to solve the conflict without biases (Birch, 2008).An effective manager also needs to have a sense of perspective based on the actual comparative importance and interrelations. Finally is the element of trusts which is a major issue in defining an effective manager and also towards the workforce. A trusted manager by an employee means that he will be respected, and they will consider the job assigned to them as being of greater value. Managers also need to trust their team or workers in completing tasks and getting jobs done. A relaxed environment creates this trust because employees will not fear the consequences of their work (Pedler, Burgoyne and Boydell, 2013).


Weth A (2007) Key Leadership Traits of an Effective Managing in Culturally Diverse Work Groups GRIN Verlag, p 12

Birch, D (2008) The Relationship Between Leadership Qualities and Effective Leadership by Middle Managers in an Airline Maintenance Operation. ProQuest, p 17

Pedler, M Burgoyne J and Boydell, J (2013) A Manager'S Guide To Self-Development. McGraw-Hill International, p 28

Published in Management
Friday, 30 May 2014 12:14

Transformational Leadership

 Transformational Leadership

It was noted that the number of patient fall among in-patients had increased significantly. This trend has mainly been noted among elderly patients. The trend is threatening to jeopardize the quality of the care delivery process. Patient falls are a significant cause of non-fatal injuries among patients and account for 15% of re-hospitalization case across the country (Currie, 2012). This problem requires urgent attention in order to enhance patients’ experiences.The leadership approach that is most suitable in addressing this situation is the transformational leadership approach. Transformational leadership focuses on introducing changes into the organization (Slavkin, 2010). In order to address the problem of patient fall, the hospital needs to make changes in the way it operates.

Transformational leaders are responsible for initiating the change process. They do this by identifying a vision. A vision is generally a mental image of the desired situation (Trofino, 2008). For instance, the vision in this case may be to have a healthcare environment that is free from falls and accident.Identifying a vision is just the first step in introducing change. The second, and the most important, step is communicating this vision to others and inspiring them to pursue this vision (Slavkin, 2010). This is one of the major differences between transformational leadership and other leadership approaches. Transformational leadership approach emphasizes on getting the followers to buy in the vision and the idea proposed by the leader.

It focuses on ensuring the followers own this vision rather than coercing them to accept the vision. Ownership of the vision can only be created through effective communication. In this case, the leader needs to communicate his change ideas and how these ideas are important in addressing the problem of patients fall.Transformational leadership also focuses on ensuring that followers participate and make meaningful contributions towards the realization of the vision (Slavkin, 2010). The leader identifies the vision but allows the follow to formulate strategies for achieving this vision. He gives an opportunity for each follower to make contributions. In this case, the vision is to have a hospital environment that is free from patient falls. The transformational leaders will take followers’ suggestion on how this vision can be realized.

The transformational leader does not micromanage people but focuses on empowering the followers so as they can achieve the desired goals. In this case, the leader can empower followers through training, mentorship program, provision of equipments, and all other requirements.  Empowerment and participation of employees reinforces the sense of ownership of the change idea.Transformational leadership also focuses on creating a relationship of trust and complementarity between the leader and followers (Trofino, 2008). The leader acknowledges the importance of the role played by the followers in the realization of the quality vision. He is also concerned about the welfare of employees.

This relationship encourages the followers and the leader to become identical. The relationship also raises the motivation of both the leader and followers to the highest levels leading to increased performance.Transformational leadership will accommodate desirable outcomes because this approach focuses on creating ownership of the change idea and the change process among the followers (Slavkin, 2010). A strong sense of ownership in the ideas will ensure that the followers continue to pursue this vision even in the absence of the leader. The vision does not die with the departure of the leaders since others have bought this vision. Transformational leadership will also accommodate desirable success because it emphasizes on bringing every person on board (Trofino, 2008). All members of the organizations are encouraged to participate and make suggestions that will help in solving the problem. Wide scale involvement of employees in hospital activities enhances innovativeness as different employees introduce different ideas for solving the problem.


Currie, L. (2012). Fall and Injury Prevention. Retrieved from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK2653/

Slavkin, H. (2010). Leadership for Healthcare in the 21st Century. Journal of Healthcare Leadership. 35- 41

Trofino, J. (2008). Transformational Leadership in Health Care. Nursing Management. 26 (8): 42- 47


Published in Sociology
Friday, 30 May 2014 11:57

Homework Assignment No. 2

Homework Assignment No. 2

Qn. 1

In January 2010 the Bank de Japan (the Central Bank of Japan) reported that bills and coins outside the banks were 350 billion. Japanese banks had checkable deposits of 100 billion and savings deposits and time deposits of 1500 billion. Currency inside the banks was 30 billion. Japanese banks had deposits at the Bank of Japan of 296 billion. Calculate:

a. The bank’s reserves_____ 326 billion_________

=Currency + bank deposits

=30 billion + 296 billion

= 326 billion

b. The monetary base_______ 380 billion ________

=currency (bills and coins) + bank reserves

=350 billion + 326 billion

=676 billion

Monetary base = currency (bills and coins) + bank reserves

c. M1_______ 130 billion________

= checkable deposits + currency

=100billion + 30 billion

=130 billion

d. M2_______1630 billion ________

M2 = M1 + savings deposits, small time deposits, money market funds

= 130 billion + 1500 billion

Qn. 2

List the policy tools available to the Fed and sketch the way in which each tool works to change the supply of money.

  1. Open market operations
  2. Required reserve ratios
  3. Discount rate
    1. Plot the Phillips curve and the aggregate supply curve for 2008.
    2. Suppose the natural rate of unemployment is 6 percent in 2007. What is the expected inflation rate? ____ 1.93%_____
    3. Calculate Antarctica’s current account balance_____ -$100 billion ________
    4. Calculate Antarctica’s capital/financial account balance______ $70 billion________
    5. Even though the US offers very low interest rates, the US dollar has been appreciating with respect to currencies of developing countries. Why? Illustrate your answer with a graph.

This is the purchase or sale of government securities (treasury bonds and bills) in the open market by the Federal Reserve. It is used to increase or decrease the money supply.

     Government securities

                                                Money Supply

This is the percentage of deposits a bank must hold as reserves. An increase in the reserve ratio lowers the money multiplier and money supply.

                               Required Reserve Ratio


      Money Supply

Discount rate is the interest rate at which the Federal Reserve lends to commercial banks. A low discount rate makes increase money supply by making it cheaper for banks to borrow money from the Federal Reserve.

                              Discount Rate


                                                  Money Supply

Qn. 3

The First Student Bank has the following balance sheet (in millions of dollars)





Reserves at the Fed



Demand deposits


Cash in ATM's



Savings deposit


Government Securities







The required reserve ratio on all deposits is 5 percent

a. What, if any, are the bank’s excess reserves? ____ $21.5 million __________

Required reserves = $90 million × 5% = $4.5 million

Actual reserves = $25 million

Excess reserves = $25 million - $4.5 million

= $21.5 million

b. What is the bank’s deposit multiplier? _____20_________

The bank’s deposit multiplier = 1/r


= 20

 c. How much will the bank loan? _____ $21.5 million ________

The First student bank will loan its excess reserve, i.e. $21.5 million

d. How much money will be created from the funds loaned in c)? _____ $1 million________

Money created = 20 × 1/20

= $1 million

Qn. 4

The Fed conducts an open market purchase of securities. Indicate (up, down, unchanged etc) the effects of this action in the short-run.

a. The quantity of money supplied _____Up____________

b. The quantity of money demanded_______   UP__________

c. The nominal interest rate_______ Down__________

d. The real interest rate_______ Unchanged __________

Qn. 5

If the velocity of circulation is constant, real GDP is growing at 3 percent a year, the real interest rate is 2 percent a year, and the nominal interest rate is 7 percent a year.

a. What is the inflation rate? _____5%_________

Nominal interest rate = real interest rate + Inflation

Inflation rate = 7%-2%

= 5%

 b. What is the growth rate of money? ______ 8%________

Money growth + Velocity growth = Inflation rate + Real GDP growth

Since the velocity of circulation is constant = Money growth= Inflation + Real GDP growth


= 8%

c. What is the growth rate of nominal GDP? ______ 10%________

= Nominal inflation rate + Real GDP growth



 Qn. 6

Where does money come from? Watch the video to answer the question

The Federal Reserve creates money by lending imaginary amounts of money to commercial banks. As the money is lent through the monetary system, money is created. Alternatively, this can be explained using deposit. When an individual or any other entity makes a deposit at a bank, the deposit multiplies as it moves throughout the monetary system. For example, a $50 deposit can be transformed to a $1000. The multiplication depends on certain conditions, but this the process of how money is created.

  Qn. 7

In 2009, the United States is in a recession. Then the following measures are implemented: 

a. The Fed increases the quantity of money, and all other influences on aggregate demand remain the same. Illustrate the effect of the increase in the quantity of money on aggregate demand in the short-run. Indicate the change in real GDP, the price level and unemployment rate.

An increase in the quantity of money increases aggregate demand and shifts the aggregate demand curve rightward. Employment will increase.

  b. The federal government cuts taxes, and all other influences on aggregate demand remain the same. Illustrate the effect of the tax cut on aggregate demand in the short-run. Indicate the change in real GDP, the price level and unemployment rate.

 Tax cuts increases aggregate demand and consumption. From the resulting increase in investment employment also increases.


                                                 Ye          Yf

Qn. 8

In a deep recession, the FED, Congress, and the White House are discussing ways of restoring full employment. The President wants to stimulate aggregate demand but to do so in a way that will give the best chance of boosting investment and long-run economic growth.

 a. Would a tax cut best meet the President’s objectives? Explain

Yes. Tax cut is an expansionary fiscal tool.  Tax reduction will stimulate the aggregate demand more rapidly that increased government spending.  Unlike government spending, tax cuts have an immediate impact on the financial position of families. Projects associated with increased government spending takes time to implement and to have an impact. In addition, tax cuts are less likely to induce structural unemployment and reduced productivity like the case with government spending.  Households tend to purchase items that are valued higher than the cost of production as their spending increases due to reduced taxes.  The other aspect, it is easy to reverse tax rates once the economy recovers. Government projects are difficult to reverse. Lastly, taxes increase the incentive to earn, make investments, and participate in business activity and employ other people.

 b. Would an increase in government purchases best meet the President’s objectives? Explain

            An increase in the government purchases would help meet the president’s objective. The government purchase of items such as new highways, weapons, and other purchases increase aggregate demand. This is because an increase in government purchases increases the private sector growth due to increased government contracts to the private sector. This spurs employment, better wages, and increased consumption.

 c. Would an increase in the quantity of money and cut in the federal funds rate best meet the President’s objectives?

Reducing taxes and increasing the quantity of money would not be the best option for the president. This is because of the effect of the interest rate. The government will be required to increase its borrowing in order to cover for budget deficits that result from increased government spending. This leads to increased interest rates, which discourage aggregate demand and employment.

 Qn. 9

The California State government is proposing decreasing its expenditures and increasing taxes. Indicate the likely effect of this measure on:

a. Aggregate demand_____ Reduces_________

b. Real GDP________ Reduces______

c. Unemployment rate _______ Increases______

d. The government’s budget _____ Reduces_______

 Qn. 10

Some commentators argue that the economy can recover from the recession without increasing the money supply and government spending. Agree/Disagree. Explain.

I agree. This is because an increase in government spending and an increase in money supply cannot stimulate output and employment. For example, there is the effect of the interest rate. An increase in borrowing is required to finance budget deficits. The problem is that when governments increase their borrowing from the funds market, the interest rate will increase.  The increase in interest rate will discourage private investment and consumption.  This reduction in private investment and consumption is likely to offset the intended stimulus effects of increasing government spending. The result is an increase in government debts, which in turn lead to an increase in taxes to cover the cost of interest. Therefore, the expectation of future higher taxes will discourage private investment. Therefore, potency of expansionary fiscal policy in a recession is in question.

 Qn. 11

The Table below describes four possible situations that might arise in 2009, depending on the level of aggregate demand in this year.


Price level (2008=100

Real GDP (trillions of 2008 dollars)

Unemployment rate (percent labor force)

Inflation (calculated)


























Explanation: From the Phillips curve the inflation rate that corresponds to 6% unemployment is 1.93%.

  Qn. 12

The following data describes the economy of Antarctica in 2050:


Billions (Antarctica dollars)

Imports of goods and services


Exports of goods and services


Foreign investment in Antarctica


Antarctica's investment abroad




Explanation = the current Account Balance (CAB) = Exports-Imports=Net Exports (NX)

= $50-$150=-$100 billion Antarctica dollars

The Capital Account Balance = Foreign investment in Antarctica – Antarctica’s investment abroad

= $125billion-$55billion



c. Is the country experiencing a balance of payments crisis? Explain

The country is experiencing a balance of payment crisis. This is because the capital account balance cannot the current account balance by a positive margin. The country’s net interest payment is negative, i.e. $70 billion minus $100 billion is -$30 billion. The current account balance is in short of $30 billion to attain equilibrium.

Qn. 13: Foreign exchange market

a. Show graphically and explain the effect of an increase in US interest rates on the demand and supply of dollars. Indicate the resulting change in the exchange rate of Euros per U.S. dollars (appreciates, depreciates). 

Price level




                                                      AD1                              Real GDP

Explanation: An increase in interest rate decreases investment and consumption expenditure. In addition, it leads to a high U.S. exchange rate. For example, the U.S dollar appreciates, meaning that the dollar will gain against the Euro.  This is shown in the next graph. This decreases the U.S. net exports. The aggregate demand decreases, i.e. shifts to the left.

Exchange rate (Euros per dollar)




The developing countries have markets that are imperfect.  Due to a low interest rate in the U.S. production is stimulated. Countries in the developing world will increase their imports from the United States because of the low prices that they can pay for U.S. exports.  However, in order to remain competitive, producers in developing countries lower their prices. This will lead them to produce less, which affects the exchange rates, increasing the exchange rate of the developing country currency per unit of dollar.

Exchange rate (Developing Country currency per dollar)







  1. The current required reserve ratio is 0.1. It has not been changed for the last three years.
  2. The current discount rate is 0.75%. It has not changed for the last three years.
  3. Open market operations involve the purchase and sale of securities by the Federal Reserve.  The objective of this monetary tool is set by the Federal Open Market Committee.  It is used to adjust reserve balance supply, in order to keep the interest rate at the target established by the committee.
  4. Traditionally, the Federal Reserve has implemented monitory policy using open market operations as the primary tool. It has always involved the purchase and sale of the United States Treasury securities. Traditionally, the Federal Reserve has set an interest rate to seek to fulfill its statutory mandate of stable prices, maximum employment, and moderate long-term interest rates. However, recently, the approach has changed. The Federal response to the financial crisis utilized new approaches.  The Federal Reserve create additional methods of injecting reserves, liquidity, and credit into the financial system, as well as providing loans to institutions that are not banks. As conditions became normal, institutions that got loans during the recession period repaid them with interests. The response was satisfactory because it normalized institutions that would affect banks eventually.


  1. The data reflects the monetary base for January of every year between 2001 and 2013.


Adjusted Monetary Base



























  1. Graph
  1. Adjusted monetary base is the total sum of currency, including coins, in circulation outside the U.S Treasury and the Federal Reserve Bank. From the graph, it can be seen that the adjusted federal monetary base has been increasing over the years. Until 2008, the increase has been moderate, but afterwards there was a sharp annual increase in the adjusted monetary base.  Perhaps this reflects the financial crises that the country witnessed starting 2008. This indicates an increase in government spending over the last years.
Published in Education
Friday, 30 May 2014 11:49

The Roar of the Tiger Mom

The Roar of the Tiger Mom

Being a parent is always a major challenge to many people. The main challenge when raising a kid is to provide proper guidance and ensure that all the needs required by a child are provided. There are various approaches that parents can use to take care and raise a child depending on their cultural up brings and experiences. Many parents try to raise their children by imitating the way they were raised by their parents since to them that is the right approach in raising a kid to be successful in life. However, some approaches cannot hold in the present day and we are left to wonder which the best approaches to raise a child are and which ways are not appropriate. However, there is no real answer to this question because every person has his or her own way of raising a child.

The Roar of the Tiger Mom by Chua is an article that has sparked a lot of debates in which some may agree that the Chinese parenting approach is the best while others may consider it as an extreme case or out fashioned way of parenting. This paper takes the position that Chinese upbringing is an ancient method that does not encourage the element of socialization among children (Chua 2011). This is a method that does not prepare children to the reality of modern day world that has been transformed by globalization.Army presents great ideas of raising a child, but I consider these approaches as being extremes. The main concern for many Chinese families is to show that parenting is about putting in effort and hours towards successes in education, adhering to the hierarchical approach in parenting and prioritizing on education.

These way children are expected to take education too seriously and attain A‘s in all subjects. Based on this parenting, Chua states, “Chinese students have been found to be among the best students with best grades, more focused and attain high qualifications” (Chua 2011).In short, they have managed to jump through the hoops. This approach of parenting can have indirect and direct effects on a child’s emotions and behavior. Patrick Goldstein t writes, “The Chinese-style is an extreme method of parenting whereby daughters are not allowed to play, watch TV and get grades below an A as they prepare to be successful in life” (Goldstein, p 156). Goldstein goes ahead to argue that the individuals who have transformed the world o a new level in the past 25 years were Mark Zuckerberg and Bill Gates who are individuals who never completed their college educations yet are living a successful life.

These are the kind of people who of they had been brought up with the strict type of parenting of the Tiger mom, they would not have been in the position they are in today.I do disagrees with the parenting Code by Chua because it seems like an extreme form of parenting that makes children to experiences negative coping efficacy and life events. The research by Zhou and colleague shows (2008) Chinese children with parents using authoritative form of parenting display more internalizing problems than their peers whose parents are not strict authoritarians.

These children were experiencing problems lack frustration and anger that is side effects of strict parenting and do evoke negative reactions (Zhou, et al, 2008).This is because the strict parenting style as stipulated by neurotic ambitions that parents might have. However, there are children who adapt well to life and even excel in both their education and career achievement without having to be to be parented by strict expectations of excelling in life. Some of the Hollywood figured who top in the entertainment industry yet did not get unaware to Harvard Yard include Scott Rudin, David Geffen, Steve jobs, Jeffery Katzenberg, Ron Meyer, Peter Jackson and Quentin Tarantino.

There are also successful MBAs and lawyers in Hollywood, but have in them the raw spirit of inspiration and invention (Kolbert, 2011).Parenting is in the western culture is different from the Chinese type of parenting. Western parents are less strict than Chua’s definition of the Chinese parenting. Western parents provide support to their children by giving them a chance to discover what they want and to develop their interests into talents (Chang et al 2009). Chinese children are required to respect the wishes of their parents and do what they expect from them. They have to impress their parents so that they become acceptable. This is different from the western way of parenting, and it is common for a Chinese person to perceive western children as being spoilt.

However, the case of spoiling children is not a true aspect but what every parent does is to provide the child and enable the child live within their parent’s limits. Setting limit is a crucial element in parenting for the western parents.Bring up a child in the Chinese method of parenting is an element that has been passed from one generation to another. In the past Chinese society, there was a high level of poverty children were raised strictly. Disobeying parents and other elders meant that the child would be punished by not being given education. Gaining education then was a privilege and only meant for obedient children (Eisenberg, and Morris 2002).

However, nowadays, education is vital and denying a child education is a criminal act. This have now changed because one has to go to school so as to earn money. Changes in the world also mean that the way of raising children has to change too. The poverty level of China has drastically decreased, and people can access education at low costs. Murphy states that, “Chua’s family and Chinese way of parenting falls under the ancient method of raising children” (Murphy, 156).There are now many business opportunities and ventures which can give a young person prosperity of a life time without having to attend the most prestigious universities around the world.

Globalization has, in fact, boosted opportunities for young talents and success in the present world is defined by having a good personality. For example get a good job requires one to the interrelation with other people and good communication skills. Therefore, the world has changed, and it requires people who are innovative, team players and knowledgeable. These elements come together in forming a whole rounded person that cannot be created in the Chinese way of parenting. The Chinese way has strict principles, no qualities and is trapped in the past way of raising children. The way Chinese parents execute their values and principles as they raise children is way too exaggerated.


Kolbert E (2011) America’s top parent. New York Times

Goldstein P (2011) Tiger Mom vs. Tiger Mailroom. Los Angeles times.

Zhou et al, (2008) Relations of Parenting to Chinese Children’s Experience Child development JOURNAL, 79(3): 493–513.

Chang L, et al (2009) Harsh Parenting in Relation to Child Emotion Regulation and Aggression 17(4): 598–606.

E Isenberg and Morris A (2002). Children’s emotion-related regulation. In: Kail RV, editor. Advances in child development and behavior. Vol. 30. San Diego, CA: Academic Press; 2002.

Eisenberg N, Ma Y, Chang, L (2007) Relations of effortful control, reactive under control and anger to Chinese children’s adjustment. Development and Psychopathology. 19:385–409.

Murphy J (2011) in defense of being a kid. Dartmouth College

Chua, A (2011). Chinese mothers are superior.

Chua A (2011) The Roar of the tiger mom. Wall street journal

Published in Sociology
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