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Items filtered by date: February 2014

How Microsoft Office Application Support Paralegal Work Environment

            Microsoft has been the most widely used software in worldwide since it has several   programs that are applied in various working environments.  Therefore, as a professional using Microsoft office programs that include Word, Excel, and Power Point, is important in accomplishing various essential tasks in everyday life.   This paper, therefore, observes how the skills in Microsoft Word, Power Point, and Excel support paralegal work environment.

            Microsoft office programs such as Microsoft Word, PowerPoint, and Excel are used by individuals to accomplish many functions. This is because such programs can be used at home, in school, and more so at work.  It is used in many professions to accomplish several professional tasks.  Paralegals also find convenience in using Microsoft programs.

            According to American Bar Association (2013), strong computer skills are essential for the paralegals in the modern world. Therefore, a well trained paralegal must have excellent word processing skills to enable them format a variety of documents that they handle as they keep track of their attorneys records.  Microsoft word, for instance, is applied by paralegals to edit clients’ cases and record relevant information.

 Power Point presentations always help lawyers prepare for court cases. Therefore, paralegals should always have skills on how to prepare good presentations on screens in order to assist lawyers in presentation of their cases (Courtechforum, 2012).  Microsoft excel is a useful application assisting  paralegal keep data such as clients contents address and the other  information that need to be placed in a systematic order (eHow, 2013). Therefore, Microsoft software such as   Microsoft Word, Excel, and Power Point are powerful tools in the paralegal profession, and other professional fields.


American Bar Association, (2013). What Paralegal Do. Retrieved From, http://apps.americanbar.org/buslaw/blt/2007-01-02/orlinsky.shtml  On June 14, 2013.

Courtechforum, 2012). Why Attorneys Need Power Point. Retrieved from, http://www.courtechforum.com/2012/06/11/why-attorneys-as-well-as-paralegals-need-power-point/ On June 14, 2013.

eHow, (2013). Paralegal. Retrieved  From, http://www.ehow.com/about_6122366_need-order-become-paralegal-secretary.html  On June 14, 2013.

Monday, 10 February 2014 05:07

Age Discrimination

Age Discrimination

Publication by Armstrong-Stassen, M. & Lee, S. H. (2009)

This dissertation focuses on the topic of age-based discrimination in the workplace. While the dissertation focuses on current trends, it also narrows down on future aspects and areas of research based on the notable gaps. For the study, a total of 291 respondents were used. In essence, this was a representative sample of the ageing population in the workplace. There are various reasons why this population has been studied with regard to the issue of age-based discrimination. Firstly, this population is immensely prone to age discrimination across different workplaces in North America (Armstrong-Stassen & lee, 2009).

Based on the stipulations provided by the author, most employers in North America have established human resource policies which are more or less unfavorable to the aging employees. Another reason for focusing on this population pertains to the significance of equality at the workplace. The platforms and guidelines established for equality at the workplace are massively essential in terms of streamlining the operational efficiency of organizations. Additionally, the aging population in the workplace is strongly influential from the perspective of experience. In this study, the reason why 291 participants were used is that such a sample would facilitate for adequate qualitative and quantitative analysis. This is an essential aspect as pertains to research in human resource management. The need for future study in the topic of age-based discrimination in the workplace has also been identified in this publication (Armstrong-Stassen & lee, 2009). One of the identified areas of future research is the evaluation of variables which might affect the relationship between age-based discrimination and human resource practices. This is because the current studies have not focused adequately on these kinds of variables.

The second aspect of future research pertains to the reaction of different genders to age discrimination in the workplace. Based on the stipulations provided in the publication, male employees might react differently to the female employees towards age-based discrimination. Future studies must also examine the inherent associations or linkage between age-based discrimination and the framework for job satisfaction (Armstrong-Stassen & lee, 2009). These dynamics are immensely crucial in the attainment of human resource efficiency in the modern workplace settings.

Research Questions

From the gaps identified in the publication, it is immensely crucial to establish the most pertinent research questions. In essence, these research questions are significant from the perspective of addressing such gaps.

Research Question 1: What kind of demographic variables affect the linkage between human resource practice and age-based discrimination?

This research question zeros down on the pertinent dynamics of human resource practice and age based discrimination. While there are numerous potential demographic variables which influence such associations, they have not been critically addressed in current research (Morris, 2012). This underlines the significance of this research question as pertains to the topic of age discrimination in the modern workplace.

Research Question 2: How does age discrimination influence the standards of job satisfaction in an organization?

This is another pertinent research question that relates to the identified gaps in research. The research question is helpful from the perspective of demystifying the connection between job satisfaction and age discrimination (Whitley, 2012).

Research Question 3: How can age discrimination be mitigated among the aging employees?

This also serves as a pertinent research question in view of the different gaps in research. The establishment of the most effective mitigation measures is massively influential from the perspective of streamlining human resource management (Brewster, 2012).


Armstrong-Stassen, M. & Lee, S. H. (2009). The effect of relational age on older   Canadian employees’ perceptions of human resource practices, International          Journal of Human Resource Management , 20(8), 1753-1769 Accessed on 11th    June, 2012 from http://www.emeraldinsight.com/bibliographic_databases.htm?id=1820354&PHPSESSID=hk6upeesiqvd5130d0hotfc225

Brewster, C. J. (2012). Handbook of research on comparative human resource       management, Cheltenham: Edward Elgar Publishing

Morris, S. (2012). Handbook of research in international human resource management,     Cheltenham: Edward Elgar Publishing

Whitley, B. E. (2012). Principles of research in behavioral science. New York, NY:          Taylor & Francis

Published in Management
Monday, 10 February 2014 04:56

Validity, Reliability, and Generalizability

Validity, reliability, and Generalizability

Validity is described as the degree that a measuring procedure reflects, captures, or assesses the specific concept that a research is trying to measure. Validity usually applies to both the method and design of the research. Validity in the collection of data means that the findings of the research truly represent the phenomenon that one is claiming to measure. There are usually two types of validity including internal validity and external validity. Internal validity is normally affected by flaws in the study like not controlling some of the major variables or any problems with the research instrument. Findings can be stated to be internally valid because the findings could have been affected by other factors other than the ones thought to having caused them or even because data interpretation by the researcher has not been clearly supported (Powell, & Connaway, 2010).

External validity refers to the extent in which a person can generalize the findings to a larger group or in other contexts. In a research that lacks external validity, the findings cannot be used in any other circumstance other than the one a person carried out the research. Findings can be said to externally invalid because they cannot be applied in the context outside the one the research took place. Internal and external validity are important in analyzing the usefulness, appropriateness, and meaningfulness of the research study. It is necessary to consider the validity in doing a research study so that to ensure that the outcomes can be used effectively and that the variables which might threaten validity are controlled. Results, which are not deemed to being valid, are considered as meaningless to the research. Validity is extremely important because results, which are not valid, cannot be used in generalizing any findings and they end up being a waste of effort and time.


Reliability is described as the regularity of the results when the experiment is replicated in the same conditions. Research normally requires dependable measurements and measurement are usually reliable to the extent that they are repeated and any influence that tends to make the measurement different is a source of measurement error. The amount of error in a measurement normally establishes the amount of reliability. High amount of error mean low reliability and low error means high reliability of the research. Reliability is a research is important because a research that is not reliable means that we cannot be able to determine if the research that is carried out is evidence to suggest that the hypothesis of the research is significant (Powell, & Connaway, 2010).


Generalizability tends to investigate and design reliable observations. Generalizability is considered as a structure for doing and documenting qualitative research of high quality. This concept describes the extent in which the research findings can be applied in a setting other than that which it was originally tested. Sound generalizability normally requires data on a large population which provides the best foundation for production of broad generalizability (Baumgarten, 2012). In the concept of generalizability, the larger sample of the population, the more, the results can be generalized.

Survey research

A survey is defined as a tool of data collection for assessing opinions, thoughts, and feelings. Survey research is being used in different groups and sociologists and psychologists are using survey research in analyzing behavior. A survey usually consists of a predetermined set of questions that are normally given to the sample (Baumgarten, 2012). A good idea where survey research can be used is in the needs of media in evaluating public health officials. Some questions can be given to the officials when deciding to gather some information from them.

There are several advantages of survey research including high representativeness because a survey usually provides a high level of capability in representing a large population. From the large number of people, the data that are gathered tend to possess a good description of relevant characteristics of the population involved in the study. Surveys are usually able to gather data that are near to exact attribute of the population. Survey research also costs low as a person is only required to pay for production of the questionnaires. There is also convenient gathering of data because the survey can be done through a variety of methods. It is possible to set the questionnaires through email, fax or the internet. There is online survey method that tends to be a popular method for data gathering of the target population (Baumgarten, 2012). Survey research is also advantageous because of good statistical significance. Due to the high representation that is brought about by the survey, it is easy to find statistically significant results. It is possible to analyze multiple variables using survey research.

However, survey research has some disadvantages including being an inflexible design. The method of survey which is used at the start of the research cannot be changed all through the process of gathering data. Another disadvantage is the possibility of inappropriateness of questions. In a survey, questions are usually standardized before they are administered to the subject. Therefore, the research is normally forced to create questions which are enough to accommodate the entire population.

Probability sampling

Probability sampling is sampling where every person in the population has the same likelihood of getting selected. The selection of a person is usually based on some random procedure. Simple random sampling is normally considered as the simplest form of sampling which is simple to accomplish. Simple random sampling is a scheme with the chance that any subset of the sample has an identical likelihood of being the chosen sample. The method of selecting the sample is through a table of random numbers. Probability sampling techniques include simple random sampling, systematic sampling, stratified sampling, and cluster sampling. Simple random sampling cannot be able to provide samples that are more representative of the target population like the other sampling techniques. In the other probability sampling techniques, they usually require information on stratification variables, which are required for every element in the population (Boyatzis, 1998).

The information that is included in these techniques involves details on the section of the target sample which belongs to each stratum. This is information that is extremely necessary because it helps in getting the required data. When using the other techniques, there is normally limited possibility of sampling errors while in simple random has a high probability of sampling errors. An example where random sampling cannot be used is in studying the effects of drug abuse on the users. When performing this study, the researcher will be required to make sure that he uses another probability sampling technique and not simple random sampling because picking any person randomly might not represent the target population. The researcher will be required to ensure that he has target people whom have used drugs so that he can be able to gather the necessary information. Using simple random sampling may fail to yield the expected results.

Survey questions

  1. Cyber crimes tend to be using increasing powerful and targeted attacks in stealing of information that range from credit cards to even personal information. The issue of cyber crime continues to being more professional, and it appears that the barriers to entry are becoming lower with the increasing emergence of powerful exploits and toolkits for sale online. However, the current general statutes are adequate to prosecuting crimes which are mediated through a computer.

    Strongly Agree




    Strongly Disagree

  1. During all incidences, when the computer is the target of offense, the perpetrator normally tend to attach the computer through breaking into the computer or even attacking it from outside. Professionals tend to consider this kind of cybercrime as one of the most professional case in three of the categories of cybercrimes. According to the professionals, they claim this is because the criminal normally do the programming and uses some exploits on the computer. This is done by someone who has background information of computer science

    Strongly Agree




    Strongly Disagree

  1. 3.Digital surveillance is considered as a controversy to cybercrime and has an impact on civil liberties. It is claimed that the government surveillance networks normally monitor the enormous volumes of private communications, and it also apply artificial intelligence so that to filter out the relevant data. This is a strategy that is expected to decrease the possibility of cases of cybercrimes and doing this will require to infringe on individual privacy.

    Strongly Agree




    Strongly Disagree

  1. Costs on cybercrimes are highly contested, and it is believed that for it to be possible to generate control expenditures and the power of overriding privacy, there is a need of very high figures. Cost in cybercrime is definitive, and the scale is between a slight summation of the known direct cost of the detected crimes and the speculative extrapolations from the subset the dimensions which sets are not known. Measuring the cost of cybercrime has become complicated because of having different sets of diverse acts that represent the different crime mechanisms.

    Strongly Agree




    Strongly Disagree

  1. The issue of cybercrimes can be solved by raising a cyber army which is the need for a well equipped team which will be responsible of dealing with the new trends in the hi tech crime. The government is supposed to tech a new direction in constituting cyber crime cells in all the states and also the important cities. It is necessary to establish a cyber crime investigation cell that will make sure it deals with all the issue related to cybercrimes. It is also necessary for the judiciary to make sure that it shapes the enactment of the law dealing with the issue of cybercrimes.

    Strongly Agree




    Strongly Disagree


Data is referred to a set of values that are representing a concept. Data usually become information when it is analyzed and maybe combine with other data so that to extract meaning and to provide a context. Information is usually the end product of data. Data is the stream of raw facts that represent certain events that have occurred and information is that data which has been manipulated, organized, converted, and arranged and then presented in a manner that can be understood and used. The context and presentation are what usually separate data from information when conducting a survey every questionnaire usually contains data. This is data that may appear to be organized in a form, but yet it has to be given a contest and be presented in a proper manner for the intended purpose (Boyatzis, 1998). When this data is compiled, presented in the format that is recommended, this means that the data is useful and meaningful to the users or the purpose that it is intended; thus, making it useful information. Through conversion, organization, manipulation and also the transformative process, data can produce information that is of very high quality and the quality of information which is produced normally depends on outcomes of the transformation process. This is a process that normally determines whether the final information is accurate, understood, and properly communicated (Boyatzis, 1998).

Misuse of data tends to occur very much in research. The analysis of data can be done using the strategy which is not required or misinterpreted. These are incidences that usually result to misuse of information. The research can analyze the data in the wrong manner so that the results can fit what he is expecting. Therefore, the research will decide to change the data that was gathered so that it can result into something else. This is incidence that results to misuse of data because it is not being used according to what it was meant for (Denscombe, 2007). Misuse of data can also occur in the case when the data is not clear. If the research used questionnaires, when analyzing the data, it is possible for the research to find instances when certain answers are not clear; hence, ending up interpretation the data in the wrong manner. The researcher might interpret the data in a manner that he thought was what the interviewer meant, but ends up being completely wrong. In this case, the data will be misused because the data that was collected did not meet the expected results as it was wrong used when analyzing the study.  The researcher can also decide to stretch the findings or even ignore some of the data which is a form of data misuse. All data that have been gathered should be used in the expected manner (Denscombe, 2007). The researcher can decide to stretch the results which end up to distortion. It is also possible for some data to be ignored; hence, fails to yield the expected results. These are some ways in which data can be misused.


Denscombe, M (2007). The good research Open University Press

Boyatzis, R (1998). Transforming qualitative information SAGE

Powell, R & Connaway, L (2010). Basic research methods for librarians ABC-CLIO

Baumgarten, M (2012). Paradigm Wars GRIN Verlag

Published in Education
Monday, 10 February 2014 04:51

Fashion Trend Inspired in Moulin Rouge Movie

Fashion Trend Inspired in Moulin Rouge Movie


 Moulin Rouge is a film that is bound to set the current and future fashion trends in society. The film has managed to revive garments such as corsets and fishnet in a stylish manner. Soon after the release of the movie, the sale of the products and other similar commodities rose. Fashion houses such as Bloomingdale realized increased sale of clothes designed using the film inspirations. The film has enabled fashion designers to realize that clothes and designs considered out dated can be modified and returned to the market as trendy fashions. This is exactly what Moulin Rouge helped achieved, with the return of corsets and fishnets albeit improved adjustments to have the modern appeal.


Moulin Rouge is an American-Australian film released in 2001. The film is not only a romantic film but also a presentation of high taste for fashion and trends. Movie lovers have loved the movie not only for its excellent plot and story line, but for the great peek into fashion and beauty.  Catherine Martin is the designers credited with the numerous fashion designs of costumes that the characters wore on set (IMDB, 2013). Movies are mainly reviewed based on their plot, story line and role of the characters. However, Moulin Rouge has been analyzed with regard to the fashion statements exuded by characters. Moulin Rouge is about fashion, trends and class as characters bring out a fresh perspective to fashion.


Freeman Hardley of the Guardian newspaper wrote an article Can-can do in which she pinpoints the great influence that Moulin Rouge has had on the fashion industry. Moulin Rouge has altered the fashion industry, people tastes and has resulted to a change of ward robe. Characters in the film wore Bustier, corsets and tulle skirts. Other movies such as merchant Ivory also introduced viewers to another level of fashion, but the pace that Moulin rouge has set remains unmatched.

Moulin Rouge managed to bring fashion trends that had been forgotten and believed to be fashions of the past. Moulin Rouge brought the corset as a trending fashion. The corset is a garment that is mainly worn to enhance the beauty of the woman. The garment is worn on the upper body of the wearer, to bring out the curvy shape of the woman by reducing the waist, and bringing out the hips and the bust (Hadley, 2001). Corsets have been in existence for many centuries with the fist records of the use of corset being during the Victorian era in 2000 BC. Corsets have been modified and changed over as fashion trends evolved. Corsets were originally worn as outer garments, though they are now mainly worn as inner garments. The 16tyh century saw the introduction of the corset as an undergarment. The corset as an undergarment originated in Italy before being introduced in France in early 16th century.

The film also brought back the fishnet hosiery in which the main character Satine (Nicole Kidman) wore in various scenes. Fishnet hosiery refers to the light material used in stockings and tights. Fishnets are considered sexy and are mostly worn as undergarments.  Fishnets define the curves of the wearer as well as accentuate her muscles. The origin of fishnets is vague, but they are known to have first been worn in Paris before spreading to America. Historically, fishnets were considered garment for loose women such as prostitutes. Some of the fishnets were held up the body using garter belts. In 1980’s and 1990’s the popularity of fishnets had risen, and the garment became a popular were among professionals (The post and Courier, 2001). Models began to wear them down runaways as a fashion statement as business women began wearing them to work. In 2000, fishnets had become acceptable forms of undergarments worn mainly on the legs. The advent of Moulin Rouge brought the flames for fishnets as they became popular once again. Moulin Rogue had numerous scenes where the main character Satine wore fishnets hosiery with her other garments. The movie has managed to inspire fashion, an achievement that is rare for many films (Hadley, 2001).

 The sale of clothe lines similar to those worn by characters in Moulin Rouge have been on the rise. The film has managed to make trendy, garments that were assumed to be outdated and old fashioned. Bloomingdale store, for instance, opened Moulin Rouge shops in New York and Los Angeles soon after the release of the film. Within the first two weeks, the chain stores had sold more than 2000 special Moulin rouge t-shirts (The post and Courier, 2001). Nicole Kidman, the main characters of the film has also become increasingly popular as the modeled the unique designs from the film. The fashion taste presented in the film has inspired current fashion designers to invent new fashion designs. The senior vice president of Bloomingdale, Kal Ruttenstein states Moulin Rouge was the used as the mark of inspiration by its designers. Other than clothes, jewelry and ornaments such as chokers, chandelier earrings, and neck laces have become common due to inspiration from the costume and fashion taste of the film.


Catherine Martin created the costumes for characters of the film Moulin Rouge. Her fashion statements and taste are evident in her film. However, she did not anticipate the fashion statements and positive reception that her fashion taste received. Moulin Rouge set the trend for current and future fashion. The film managed to bring garments such as the corset and fishnets, which were considered outdated. Fashion accessories such as jewelries also increased in sales as their popularity increased. Fashion designers are now designing clothes based on Moulin Rouge inspiration setting the pace for emerging trends.


The post and Courier, (2001). Moulin Rouge kicks fashion trends. Retrieved from http://news.google.com/newspapers?nid=2482&dat=20010608&id=jZxIAAAAIBAJ&sjid=zAoNAAAAIBAJ&pg=1348,3239132

Hadley, F. (2001). Can-can do. Retrieved from http://www.guardian.co.uk/film/2001/sep/07/fashion

IMDB, (2013). Moulin Rouge. Retrieved from


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