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Items filtered by date: February 2014

Monday, 10 February 2014 13:53

Iphone

Iphone


Today, we tend to have very many Smartphone’s and it appears to be difficult to decide which Smartphone is the perfect fit for our lifestyle, personal style, and budget. IPhone is considered as one of the leading Smartphone’s in today’s industry, and it is very easy to agree with this. Today, we have several people who rely on their iPhones in almost every of their activities. Today, the best way of figuring out how people are using their money is through looking at how people are using the internet.  Internet has made everything appear easy and possible. There are several people spending a lot of their time online while they are searching different staff online. The key question is to find how people use iPhone in today’s world. This paper will focus on how important an iPhone is to the life of people.


How iPhones are being used

IPhone appears to be the last phone a person may want to own as Apple company appears to have designed this phone so that to have the ability of doing almost everything one earth. When using an iPhone, the internet is considered as the most important thing. There are several applications, which have made it easy to using iPhones. With iPhones, the user can be able to share documents, files, and photos through the free Drop box application. This has made it easy for students to share files with their teachers and also other students. Employees can even share documents while they are at home or far from the office with other employees. When an employee is traveling to the office and might have a meeting or a presentation, it is possible to review the document through their iPhone, update, and even edit so that to avoid rushing when they arrive in the office.


People are using iPhones in taking photos almost in their daily lives. The iPhone users can be seen in the act of creating snapshots of their adventures, with the surrounding, their loved ones, while in concert outings, and even when their feet are in the sand. Personally, I am one of the iPhone users, and I tend to value my phone more than anything else. I carry my iPhone whenever I go to make sure I get the chance of taking photos of whatever I find exciting. With an iPhone, I have the chance of taking more photos because it is easy to carry and also fast to operate than having a camera around.


People who own iPhones tend to rely on them for blogging. With an iPhone, the user can have an easy access to several blogging tools and also applications. With Google mobile, it is easy to have features of Google on the iPhone which allows the user to look at images, updates, videos, blogs, and news and the user can link them to their own blog. With internet and an iPhone, the user does not have to by newspapers to have access to news because it is possible to have access to any information right at the comfort of their set with an iPhone.


An iPhone tend to have a lot of features where the user can add or even customize it. This is the reason as to why people rely on it for some of their activities. Personally, I am a music lover and with my iPhone it is easy for me to play music instruments with it. It is easy to play a guitar through the phone, and I tend to use the instrument when I feel bored as I can play the guitar without having it on my side. Therefore, with an iPhone, it is just like having a phone and a guitar in my pocket.  With an iPhone, it usually unlocks lots of possibilities for me whether I am at school, home, or even far away from home. I always find ways for making the most out of my iPhone, which is absolutely the best choice in the mobile industry.


People who are working in professional businesses tend to rely a lot on iPhone because it normally links their email, calendar, and contacts. It is possible for a person to have all that they require in the phone right in their finger tips. When a person is far from the office, an iPhone usually make it easy to have access to any emails that are incoming can also send emails. Most mothers and fathers tend to rely on their iPhones for their personal emails and also work calendar so that to be able to know what they are supposed to at a particular time while still responding to their family responsibilities.


An iPhone has such a large capacity of memory. This is something that is much useful for downloading music, movies, and also certain TV episode missed. People, who tend to travel a lot and those having a long distance journey tend to download movies in their iPhones and enjoy watching while on the journey. IPhones are normally useful for navigation. When people are traveling and do not know their way to the destination, an iPhone will act as a good guide to the destination. Tourists or people traveling to places they have never been before find the GPS navigation application in the iPhone most useful. The iPhone users usually rely on them because they are economically, and they also tend to provide a search, turn by turn, and terrific mapping navigation features. With an iPhone, there are several things that a person can do by just using the Google maps. It is possible to search for anything by just typing in the search box and get the direction and also destination. It is also possible to get information about traffic delays on the route.


Therefore, employees who are in a hurry to get to the office tend to use iPhone in navigation so that they can be able to determine the direction that they will use so that they can arrive in the office early and avoid all the traffic. I normally use my iPhone when trying to find out the street that I should use to drive my way to school which is helpful as my iPhone usually help me in avoiding traffic which makes it possible for me to arrive early in the class. I normally find it hard to arrive in school early mostly in the morning when I am not having my IPhone because there are several things that I will not be able to accomplish. In conclusion, iPhone has changed lives of many people and appears to be a basic need as people are now relying on it for most of the activities.


Published in Education
Monday, 10 February 2014 13:46

Creswell

Creswell


The research question that will be discussed is “what are the major indicators of emotionally disturbed student.”  The data will be collected using a combination of interview and focus group discussion.  The interviews will be conducted using pre-structured questionnaires. The questionnaires will contain a combination of open and closed-ended questionnaire to ensure detailed analysis of the problem.  The focus group discussions will be conducted with key informants. The key informants will include school teachers, state educational officers and parents.  The informants will be selected randomly from different schools in the study area.   The research will also employ the use of observation to note and record some of the manifestation of emotional disturbance among students.


The data will be gathered from diverse sources. School administrators, teachers and counseling departments in different schools will provide some of the necessary data required to answer the question.   Data will be sourced from primary sources such school records and other records found in the department of educate at the local level.  Some of the sites that would be helpful include educational institutional sites and other sites that contain scholarly information on the topic.


The research will require permission from school administrators, participating institution and the participants.  The researcher will also require permission from local education officer. Descriptive validity will be crucial for the research.  Information provided by the key informants during focus group discussion will have to be validity using scientifically proven observations. The observations made by parents, teachers and administrators will be assessed for accuracy and similarity. They will also be assessed against theoretically documented observations. Interpretive validity will be used to classify responses obtained from the interviews and focus group discussions.   


References

Joseph Maxwell (1992). Understanding and validity in qualitative research. Harvard graduate school of education


Published in Sociology
Monday, 10 February 2014 13:40

The Aching Feet of Nurses: Exploratory Study

The Aching Feet of Nurses: Exploratory Study


The aching feet of nurses is an exploratory study conducted by Russell Nealy et al on the incidence of work related foot pain and discomfort among nurses. The nursing profession requires that nurses spend long hours on their feet. Nurses move from one patient to another and from one department to another in one shift. The long periods of walking and standing on concrete floors is bound to have some effects on the nurses. The study which involved nurses responding to a series of question regarding their work and the impact on the feet revealed several factors that increase foot stress (Nealy, & Burns, 2012). The study revealed that direct-care and clinic nurses have a higher prevalence of foot pain than nurse managers who spend less time on their feet.  Factors such as the weight of the nurse, age, floor surface and the nursing activity the nurse is involved in can also aggravate the occurrence of foot pain.


 Nurses with high BMI levels experienced increased foot pain as a result of their weight. The study also revealed that nurses who rested but still experienced foot pain may have structural injuries or arthritis. Additional results of the survey also revealed that most nurses experienced foot injuries after they became professional nurses (Nealy, & Burns, S2012). Overall, the study revealed that foot pain is a condition that is prevalent among nurses and with pain the ability to offer quality care is affected. A nurse in pain will be less motivated and less enthusiastic to assist patients. Accepting foot pain as a prevalent condition affecting the performance of nurses will ensure health care facilities engage in preventive measures. For instance, health facilities can carpet their floors, educate their nurses on proper feet wear and encourage exercises to manage weight.


Reference

Nealy, R. & Burns, S. (2012). The aching feet of nurses: an exploratory study. Medsurg nursing. Vol 21(6); 354


Published in Social Sciences
Monday, 10 February 2014 13:31

VCU Basketball Team

VCU Basketball Team


One of the success stories of VCU outside its accolade academic achievement is the achievement of VCU basket ball team.  VCU basket ball team was established in 1968 after the medical college of Virginia and Richmond professional institute merged.  The team played their first season during the 1968-1969 seasons. In 1978, the team qualified to the national invitational final where they lost narrowly to university of Detroit.  


Despite having this rich history, the team remained an unknown to many people because of its poor performance in state leagues. However, the team has undergone a massive transformation since the current coach, Shaka smart, was hired as the team coach in 2009. Deriving his name from South African warrior, Shaka has transformed VCU basket ball team from an amateur team to a team that is respected statewide.   Shaka is believed to be one of the most inspiring VCU basketball team coach in the history of VCU. Shaka Smart began his coaching career in 1999 as an assistant coach at the University of California.  He also served in the University of Akron, Clemson and Florida before joining VCU. Being one of the youngest coaches in Division 1 league, his success is remarkable. His great work with the team bore fruit during his first season.  During this season, Shaka led VCU basket ball team to win CBI championship after beating Saint Louis.


His second season began with a big bang after Larry Sanders was declared for the 2010 NBA draft.  The election of Sander with 15th pick by Milwaukee Bucks made VCU the first school within the commonwealth of Virginia to a have a basketball player selected in the 1st round of NBA draft.  During the 2010-2011 season, smart led the team to under 23-11 and its consecutive colonial athletic association championship.


VCU basket ball team earned an automatic bid to 2011 NCAAA Tournament. However, it was placed in the “first Four” against popular teams such as USC.  Despite the selection of the team being highly criticized, the team went ahead to disappoint many of the critics.  Shaka admirable style of coaching helped the team to beat USC in the “First Four,” and went ahead to disappoint pre-tournament favorites Georgia town Hoyas, Purdue Boilermakers and Florida state university.  His defeat of Florida state university earned the school team the first ever spot in Elite Eight spot. The success of the team during the 2011 NCAA tournament ended with the team beating University of Kansa 74-61. The performance of the team during this tournament was voted the best upset of all times.


In 2001, Shaka signed an 8 year deal with the team to make him one of the greatest serving coaches with the team.  His style of play is interesting.  He introduced unique defensive style that targets disrupting opponent striking strategies.  This unique defensive style has earned the team as one of the teams with the most aggressive teams in the league. Shaka is also known for his selection criteria, which ensure he has the best players in the team. He has earned several awards and recognitions for his success with VCU basketball team. In 2011, he won Fritz Pollard and Gaines Adams National Coach of the Year Awards, which the highest awards ever won by VCU school coach. Truly Smart has transformed VCU basketball team, and his performance is better than any other recorded in the school history. 


Published in Social Sciences
Monday, 10 February 2014 13:01

How Weight Gain Leads to Death

How Weight Gain Leads to Death


Overweight and obesity have become a common health conditions, not only in developed countries, but also in some developing countries.  According to the national center for disease, one in every two American citizen is either overweight or obese.  Excess weight is linked with a number of diseases such as diabetes, stroke, hyperlipidemia, some cancers, hypertension and other lifestyle diseases.   These conditions have been listed as some of the major causes of death.  The recognition that individuals at extremes of body mass distribution has higher risks of mortality has been widely accepted in medical research and practice throughout the twentieth century. Moreover, it is established that the mortality risks of excess weight is specific to circulatory diseases, some cancers and diabetes.   The relationship between weight gain and death can be shown chronologically through ways in which weight and obesity pose as risk factors for a couple of killer diseases. Non-communicable diseases have emerged the leading causes of death in united state and other developed countries


(www.cdc.gov.powertoyourhealth2010/).  Lifestyle diseases are closely linked with dietary choice made by the populace.      This paper shows the glaring relationship between weight gain/overweight and major non-communicable diseases that have increased mortality and cost of healthcare.


Overweight and diabetes

Obesity has been shown to increase the risk of contracting cardiovascular disease in adult (Steinberger & Daniels, 2003).  Steinberger and Daniels reported that an atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease was the leading cause of deaths among adults in western societies.   Obesity plays a crucial role in the development of insulin resistant syndrome such as hyperinsulinemia, hyperlipidemia, hypertension, diabetes type 2 and increased risks of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease. An increase in weight increases the risk of cardiovascular risks.  This is true for both men and women. 


According to a study conducted in Harvard Alumni, body weight and mortality are directly related. The relationship between obesity and insulin resistance syndrome is closely linked to body fat distribution.  Individuals with high fat/adipose tissues are likely to develop insulin resistance syndrome.  According to world health organization, over weight and obesity accounts for about 65-80% of new cases of diabetes type 2.  The risk of developing diabetes type 2 from overweight and obesity is a factor of age, duration of obesity and weight gain during adult life.  Overweight and obesity contribute importantly to type 2 diabetes through increasing excess body fat and insulin resistance and probably through accelerating the decline in insulin secretion that is required for the development of clinical diabetes (Marso & Stern, 2004).


At the insulin receptors site, the receptors are down-regulated, resulting in a decrease, in the number of these receptors across the membrane surface.  This reduction causes a decrease in the binding in circulating insulin to receptors and impairs intercellular communication concerning insulin.   At the post-receptor site, there is a reduction of in the entrance of glucose into the cell and its use by insulin-sensitive cells, resulting in increased circulating glucose. The increase in blood glucose causes the pancreases to produce greater amounts of insulin as long as the person is overweight.


Overweight and cardiovascular diseases

In another study that examined the relationship obesity and development of cardiovascular diseases. According to Poirier et al (2006), obesity is an independent factor for cardiovascular diseases.   It is associated with increased morbidity in young children, mortality and reduced life expectancy.  Individuals who are either overweight or obese have altered metabolic profile.  The huge layer of adipose tissue under their skin causes several adaptation changes to cardiac structure.    Obesity may affect cardiac activities through other risk factors associated with the condition such as dyslipidemia, glucose intolerance, obstructive sleep apnea and hypertension. Overweight and obesity also predispose individuals to several coronary disorders such as cardiac failure, cardiac attack and coronary heart disease.


Overweight and cancer

According to cancer research center (UK), several studies have confirmed  overweight and obesity amplifies the risk of certain cancers.  This position is confirmed by world health organization, which reports that obesity and overweight are the most crucial avoidable risk factors to cancer second to smoking.   According to Macinnis, R., et a (2004) obesity and overweight are associated with over 17,000 cases of cancer in united kingdom per year.   Parkin, M., et al (2010) and Daniel, G., et al (2005), states that, around 7 and 15%, of breast cancer in developed countries are associated/caused by obesity.   Several studies have revealed that women who are overweight are at increased danger of contracting postmenopausal breast cancer (Reeves, G.K., et al, 2007 and Lahmann, P., et al, 2004).  Obesity is also a major cause of bowel cancer.  Obese men have increased risk of contracting bowel cancer.  Women with larger waist circumference are also at increased risks of contracting bowel cancer (Pischon et al, 2006). Studies have also shown that overweight increases the chance of getting esophageal cancer (Kubo & Corley, 2006).  Several studies have also reported an association between overweight and a number of other cancers such as brain cancer, ovarian cancer and thyroid cancers (Maso et al, 2000).


In 2013, Katherine et al, disputed this long help notation that overweight and obesity increase mortality.  Katherine and her colleagues conducted a meta-analysis of all-cause mortality with obesity and overweight.   According to their findings, obesity is not associated with increased mortality. Similarly, overweight was associated with lower all-cause mortality.  


Conclusion

The relationship between weight gain and major causes of mortality is well documented.  Overweight and obesity increase the risk of contracting diseases such as diabetes, cardiovascular diseases and several cancers.  Overweight and obesity reduce cells sensitivity to insulin thus contributing to the development of type diabetes. Obesity causes several cardiac disorders such as hyperlipidimia, dyslipidemia, hypertension and atherosclerosis, which favors the development of other cardiac conditions such as coronary heart disease, heart attack, heart failure and stroke.  Overweight has also been associated with several cancers such as esophageal, breast, ovarian, thyroid and prostate cancer.  These lifestyle diseases have increased in the different part of the world. Highlighting the link between weight and these diseases will help policy developers and healthcare promoters to develop appropriate strategies to curb overweight in the country. Control of overweight and obesity will play a great role in dipping morbidity and mortality linked with lifestyle diseases. It will also reduce the cost of providing healthcare services.


References

Body weight and cancer. Cancer research UK. Retrieved from http://www.cancerresearchuk.org on 20/6/2013.

Katherine et al (2013). Association of all-cause mortality with overweight and obesity. The journal of the American medical association. Vol. 309, issue 1; Pg 3.

Maso Dal et al (2000). A pooled analysis of thyroid cancer.  Pudmed Vol. 11 issue 2; Pg 137

Parkin et al (2010). The proprtion of cancer attributable to lifestyle and environment.  BJC, Vol. 2.  Issue 105

Pischon T. et al (2006). Body size and colon cancer. J Natl Cancer institute.

Poirier et al (2006). Obesity and cardiovascular disease.  Pathophysiology, evaluation, and effects of weight loss.  AHA scientific statement. Retrieved from http://circ.ahajournals.org on 19/6/2013.

The challenges of diabetes. Retrieved from http://www.euro.who.int on 19/6/2013.


Published in Nursing
Monday, 10 February 2014 12:49

Diabetes Mellitus

Diabetes Mellitus


Introduction

Improper food choices do not provide a sufficient justification for the occurrence of Type II diabetes in all age categories of the American population for two reasons: it does not account for the increasing incidence of type II diabetes among infants and children and does not explain why the disease is varied in its prevalence across the racial and gender divide. Instead, in addition to access to sufficient, nutrition information on healthy food choices, therapeutic actions should focus on the socioeconomic and genetic reasons which results in overweight and obesity, which are the precursors for type II diabetes.


This research paper, therefore, seeks to investigate the significance of the role of nutrition in preventing and treating type II diabetes, and the potential significance of the consideration of genetic and socio-economic factors in the incidence and potential therapeutic interventions for type II diabetes.


Statement of the Problem

Today, Type II Diabetes affects close to 250 million people worldwide, 27 million in the U.S. alone (Lee et al., 2011). The global incidence of type II Diabetes is constantly rising in epidemic proportions. One in three babies born today will develop diabetes with the risk of consequent fatal complications, at some stage in their later lives. Type II Diabetes plays a pernicious role in the premature occurrence of heart disease, amputations, blindness, vascular disease, and other physical impairments. Poor nutrition or, in simple terms, improper food choices is the recognized cause of Type II Diabetes (Miller, Gutshcall, & Mitchell, 2009). In this respect, there has been a misconception by some scholars that Americans choose to be overweight and obese, precursors for diabetes.


Environmental, genetic, socio-economic, and behavioral factors can all cause overweight and obesity, which are the predisposing factors for diabetes development. Although obesity is a public health epidemic for Americans of all ages, the occurrence, prevalence, and severity of overweight and obesity is high for population groups with low socioeconomic status, and among women, and ethnic minority groups, particularly African Americans. Overweight and obesity are the principal predisposing factors for Type II diabetes. Two-thirds of members of the American population are either overweight or obese. There is a direct link between overweight, obesity, and diabetes. In order to gain knowledge of diabetes mellitus, the effect of overweight and obesity must be examined. In a significant number of cases, diabetes is as a result of poorly managed weight. Treatment of Type II Diabetes depends on the correct diagnosis of the cause and consideration of the causes in the prevention and treatment. Therefore, focusing only on nutrition does not provide comprehensive blanket prevention and therapeutic strategies.


First, efforts to prevent and treat diabetes based on the focus on food choices does not offer a solution relevant to children as young as 12 months of age who are also significantly affected type II diabetes. According to Lee et al. (2011), advancing nutrition education of the public and addressing socioeconomic differences such as income disparities have an inverse relationship with diabetes. Poor financial and educational resources are associated with risky health behaviors, inadequate social support, and adverse environmental and physical exposures. These include inadequate housing, transportation, and dietary options that have high potential for weight gain due to the associated dyslipidemia and chronic psychological stress. Specifically, inadequate transportation and housing options may be associated with that are unsafe, and that include lack of parks and sidewalks and high levels of violence. These are factors that discourage participation of individuals in recreational physical activity. According to experimental evidence from the research done on Type II Diabetes, the biological level of these experiences that occur throughout the lifespan of persons exposed to these environmental conditions can lead to the development of complications related to diabetes, including excessive inflammation, insulin resistance, and improper regulation of the pituitary axis of the hypothalamus.


Secondly, food choices do not explain why type II diabetes affects members of one race and gender more than the other. It has become increasingly evident that a person’s genetic makeup is a significant determinant factor of the course of their future medical history and longevity of life (O’Rahilly, Barroso, & Wareham, 2005). In the 21st century, it is possible, through research evidences, to assess the potential parents for hidden genetic defects in their unborn offspring, to alter a person’s genetic profile, and potentially to treat genetically induced conditions by employing gene therapy. Therefore, gene therapy provides a potential means to treat Type II Diabetes.


Research Draft Part II

One solution is that medical personnel should investigate the role of socioeconomic factors in the onset of type II diabetes. Many studies have been performed to investigate the association of socio-demographic factors and positive health outcomes in the treatment of the disease (Lee et al., 2011). For instance, studies have proven that addressing socio-economic factors increases the potential for attaining the recommended levels of lipids and hemoglobin A1c in patients with Type II Diabetes (Miller, Gutshcall, & Mitchell, 2009). Risk factor control in Type II Diabetes cannot be complete without consideration of the socioeconomic factors. Treatment efforts should foster adjustments of modifiable socio-demographic risk factors in patients with Type II Diabetes. Poor socioeconomic status predisposes persons to risky health behaviors due to inadequate educational and financial resources, which lead to behaviors such as smoking, excessive alcohol intake, and physical inactivity. In addition, poverty, related to poor socio-economic status, predisposes persons to harmful environmental and physical exposures. Therefore, long-term solutions for prevention and management of diabetes must address the problems of housing, transportation, and other environmental components that indirectly increase the risk of developing Type II Diabetes.


It is vital to educate the public and inform them on the effects of alcohol consumption, smoking, and lack of physical activity in relation to the onset and control of Type II Diabetes (Miller, Gutshcall, & Mitchell, 2009). Perhaps, this will entail advocating for the development of infrastructure to support the implementation of nutritional preventive measures. This may require allocation of more government resources for the construction of recreational facilities, educational centers, health facilities, and other activities that ensure eradication of poverty and improvement in the wellbeing of the populations. Availability of infrastructure ensures that persons engage in physical activity, which has protective mechanisms against development of diabetes. These include reduction in blood pressure, dyslipidemia, and inflammation. Smoking impairs insulin synthesis and action, increases accumulation of abdominal fat, and increases inflammation. These are some of the risk factors for Type II Diabetes associated with smoking cigarette. On the other hand, alcohol could lead to lowered secretion of insulin secretion due to the effect of ethanol and its metabolites, which interfere with glucose utilization. It reduces the uptake of glucose and, hence, glucose-induced insulin secretion.


The second solution is that medical practitioners should consider the heredity of the genetic predisposition to the disease. Type II Diabetes is a result of both environmental and genetic factors (O’Rahilly, Barroso, & Wareham, 2005). It is known that Type II Diabetes is inherited. Family studies have revealed that individuals with family history of Type II Diabetes are 3 times more at risk of the medical condition than persons that do not. In this respect, it is evident that Type II Diabetes has a strong genetic element. Insulin resistance may be caused by a variety of genetic and metabolic disorders. This causes a variety of abnormalities including hypertension, glucose intolerance, and dyslipidemia. Therefore, understanding family history of diabetes with respect to individual patient influence consideration of factors associated with disease prevention and response to treatment.


For preventive measures, it may be necessary to assess the potential parents of a child for hidden genetic defects of the unborn child. Genetic testing helps determine the persons at risk of Type II Diabetes and contributes to diagnosis at an early age. This facilitates treatment of genetically induced conditions with the application of gene therapies. Maintenance of good glycemic control requires targeted treatment using drugs that target the relevant genes. Heterogeneity with respect to Type II Diabetes is related to the effect on insulin resistance, a primary factor in the development of hyperglycemia. The key to successfully managing overweight and obesity may rely on the investigation of the possibility of gene abnormality in persons.


Type II Diabetes can be prevented by maintaining age-related physical activity and body weight (Miller, Gutshcall, & Mitchell, 2009).  In the 21st century, it is likely that genetic tests will be available for many common disorders. This will permit persons to discover their individual susceptibilities to the disease and take steps to decrease the risks through the application of diet or drug therapy, lifestyle modifications, and medical surveillance. In line with this realization, population screening for nutritional and medical disorders must involve genetic testing so as to come up with information that will be sufficient in making prevention and treatment decisions for Type II Diabetes. This may also necessitate addressing issues related to confidentiality, stigmatization, insurance, and employment discrimination based on the realization that an individual is at a high genetic risk of Type II Diabetes. Although the magnitude of the contribution of genetic consideration to treatment is unclear, it is certainly beneficial with respect to disease management.


In order to provide accurate information on the causes of type II diabetes and inform preventive and treatment measures, the role of socioeconomic and genetic factors must be acknowledged and incorporated in the conventional preventive and therapeutic plans that only focus on food choices (Miller, Gutshcall, & Mitchell, 2009). Although public health information that focus on a nutritious diet and scheduled physical activity are now common, these messages have not been effective in reversing the trends in the incidence and prevalence of the disease. Given the rates of recent obesity epidemic, it is common knowledge that current interventions are not being implemented in response to diabetes.


Existing literature indicates that physical inactivity, heterogeneity, cigarette smoking, excessive consumption of alcohol, and, excessive dietary consumption refined carbohydrates and fat and reduced consumption of vegetables, whole grains, fruits, poultry, and fish are related to high risk of Type II Diabetes. The best approach to prevention and treatment of Type II Diabetes should involve integration of corrective measures for all the factors responsible for its onset. Knowledge of patient subgroups helps in identifying which subgroup is likely to respond to treatment. Identifying factors associated with patient response to treatment ensures targeted treatment decisions. Accounting for these factors in making prevention and treatment decisions may improve treatment decisions, therapy selection, and individual patient outcomes.


References

Lee, T. et al. (2011) “Socioeconomic status and incident Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus: Data from the Women’s Health Study” PLoS One, 6(12): e27670

Miller, C, Gutshcall, M, Mitchell, D (2009) “Change in food choices following a glycemic load intervention in adults with Type II Diabetes: Research and Professional Brief” Journal of the American Dietetic Association, 109(2): 319-324

O’Rahilly, S, Barroso, I., and Wareham, N. (2005) “Genetic factors in Type II Diabetes: The end of the beginning?” Science, 305(2005): 370-373


Published in Social Sciences
Monday, 10 February 2014 12:42

Soccer

Soccer


Alvito M (2007). Our piece of the pie Soccer & Society 8 (4)

Alvito is the author of this article providing a discussion of the Brazilian football. This articles offer a demonstration of the profound impact that globalization has which has intensified the existing contradictions in the Brazilian football. Alvito provides an analysis of how destabilization and transformation in Brazilian football has been impacted and how football in Brazil has been coping with the pressure of mediatization and commercialization for some time. The article provides an in cite of how Brazilian Football has been affected by violence. There have been various cases of violence confrontations organized by fans which have made to turn to being a public safety issue.


Karon, T (2004). What soccer means to the world Time entertainment

According to Karon, he explains how the culture of soccer has changed where it once served as a ritual combat where tribes, neighborhoods, and nations would project some of their most passionate enmities. This article provides an explanation of how globalization has changed the face of soccer just the same way as its forces are challenging long established notions of identity through eroding the traditional boundaries of the tribe and nation. Koran discusses how soccer in certain countries is being used as identification and how people are loyal to the game such that certain people go to the extent of killing and fighting for the game. According to this article, it provides an explanation of how globalization has impacted the players such that they have started marketing themselves to the higher bidders in the world for international soccer.


Sommers, A (2010). Great national soccer teams Rosen Publishing group

According to this book, Sommers provide an explanation of how soccer emerged and the way it has grown till now. Today, modern soccer has changed the face of the world as people are now using soccer as their source of employment. This book tends to explain soccer in different countries and the impact that the game has had on people. Sommers is trying to show how soccer has become one of the most well-liked games to be played in the world and how people are passionate about this game. The chapters in this book provide an analysis of how different countries have embraced the game and how soccer affects the culture of different countries. This is a book that provides a complete analysis of soccer in more than seven countries and the impact that it has to the society.


Wachelke, F (2008). Brazilian fans social representation on soccer International journal of sport science 13 (4)

Wachelke is the author of this article which is aimed at describing the structure and organizing principle of the social representation of the Brazilian soccer fans towards soccer. This is a research paper where the researcher conducted a study so that to find out the representation of the Brazilian fans on soccer. In conducting the study, the article indicates that fans, soccer clubs, emotion, and goal tend to constitute the central core representation and organize the structure. From the results of the study, it indicates that the results present contrast between symbolic and concrete aspects of soccer. This is an article which was conducted so that to find the social meaning of sports conducted on the Brazilian soccer fans. The article based its study on the Brazilians because they are known for their individual skills and they have the capacity to improvise.


Reference

Alvito M (2007). Our piece of the pie Soccer & Society8 (4)

Karon, T (2004). What soccer means to the world Time entertainment

Sommers, A (2010). Great national soccer teams Rosen Publishing group

Wachelke, F (2008). Brazilian fans social representation on soccer International journal of sport science 13 (4)


Published in Sociology
Monday, 10 February 2014 12:36

New York Nursing Practice Act

New York Nursing Practice Act


Introduction

In 21st century, nursing practice faces a number of challenges that include the growing population of inpatients who are elderly and acutely ill, increasing coast of providing healthcare and the call to keep up to date with current technologies.  These challenges are exacerbated by the shortage of qualified nurses, aging nursing workforce and fear of future shortage of nurse.   According to American nursing association, nursing practice act are laws that defines and elaborate the scope, responsibilities and qualifications of nurses.  The intent of the acts is to protect patients from harm from unsafe or incompetent nursing practice. They describe the scope of professional or unprofessional conduct, the necessary investigation and disciplinary procedures that should be instituted in case of misconduct. The state board of nursing is mandated with the responsibility of ensuring nurses comply with nursing acts set by their local states. This paper analyzes New York practice act.  The purpose of the analysis is to identify strengthen and weaknesses of New York nursing practice act.


New York nursing act provides for three distinct licenses. These likenesses include the registered professional nurse, nurse practitioner and the licensed practical nurse.   A registered nurse has been given the responsibilities of diagnosing and treating a patient’s   unique responses to a diagnosed health problem, performs health assessment, teach and counsel a patient on prevention of illnesses and maintenance of health, administer medical regimen prescribed by a registered physician, and participate in the promotion of healthcare in partnership with other professionals. The licensed practical nurse is given the responsibilities of providing skilled nursing care and procedures under the directions of a registered nurse. A nursing practitioner (NP) is a registered nurse who have acquired a separate license as a nursing practitioner by acquiring additional educational and experience in a particular field. NP have been given the mandate to diagnose, treat and prescribe for a patient which conditions that fall within the area of NP specialty.


Article 139 of education law defines the scope of practice for registered professional nurses.  The provision of this law determines how nurses provide care to patients in different health facilities. The act allows registered nurses to diagnose and treat health problems and also provide traditional nursing care.  The definition of a registered nurse in this act is too broad. It does not specify the day-t-day legal responsibilities of nurses.  This provides a possible point of conflict between the nursing practice act and regulations set by the federal board of nursing.  According to Hospital licensing laws, hospitals are required to establish policies, protocols and procedures to govern its operations.  


According to this law, the nursing department is expected to develop policies and procedures to govern the provision of nursing services.  These hospital-based laws define the scope of nursing practice within the hospital. Their scopes are usually narrower than those defined by the nursing practice cat, but sometime they present areas of conflict.  Some traditions and laws designed by the hospital may conflict the scope of practice as defined by the act. For example, in some hospitals, nurses are allowed to prepare parenteral hyperalimentation solution. However, the nursing practice act prohibits nurses from conducting unlicensed pharmaceutical procedures.  New York nursing practice does not provide for the separation between hospitals based laws and procedures rather it provides and overall scope of nursing.  However, it is important to note that hospital-based laws are not legally bidding and cannot be used to justify an act that is outside state practice act. However, they provide professional dilemma for nurses.


 

One of the challenges of New York and other nursing practice act arises from the definition of terms “profession” and “professional.” Nursing involves activities that may be performed by many different caregivers. These people include nursing assistants, practical (Vocational) nurses, and RNs prepared for entry nursing through any several nursing avenues. Each of these practitioners adds to nursing as a profession. To effectively meet the nursing needs of the public, it is essential that practitioners function at different levels of practice. This has led to the confusion about the use of the terms profession and professional.  


Nurses have legal, ethical and moral obligations to perform their duties. According to New York nursing act, the autonomy of nurses of making ethical and moral decision is not clearly provided.  Despite the fact that nurses are expected to follow instructions from qualified and registered physicians, the act has not provided for situations where a nurse may question decisions or orders given by physicians.  This may create ethical and professional dilemmas to practicing nurses. The wording of the act requires the nurse to follow the orders of the physician unless the orders are out rightly wrong or the physician is not qualified.  At the same time, nurses are not allowed to rationalize their procedures by stating that they were following orders of a physician.  The act should provide guidance on when a physician order should be disregarded or questioned.  There should be a proper definition of superior doctrine in cases where nurses act as delegated by a physician.   


Conclusion

Nursing practice acts are noble efforts to ensure nurses acts within legal and professional framework.  The acts provide scope within which the practice of the nursing profession is practiced. Many states have adopted state specific acts that regulate nursing within their state. However, all state nursing acts must be within the federal/ American nursing association acts. New York State has developed a comprehensive practice act that is modern. It has given nurses broad responsibilities than many traditional acts have provided.  The act gives registered nurses and practitioner nurses mandate to diagnosis, treat and administer treatment regime. However, the broad wording of the definition of profession or professional nurses is a concern. Similarly, the autonomy of the nurse is not guaranteed. Nurses are supposed to act within orders given by registered and qualified physicians. There is not a clear distinction when a physician order should be ignored or questioned. The act has not also provided for a clear distinction when hospital-based laws should be inferior or superior of the state law act. Nurses are not protection by the superior doctrine despite them being required to follow orders of a nurse. However, these issues are not specific to New York practice act but are common to many act.  Therefore, nursing acts should not be regarded as static laws that are inflexible.  Nurses should be aware of this legal and profession binding laws. However, nurses are expected to rely on their work knowledge and experience of hospital procedures and policies to perform their duties.  


References

New York board of nursing. Retrieved from https://www.ncsbn.org/New%20York.htm on 18/6/2013.

State practice environment. Retrieved from http://www.aanp.org on 18/6/2013

Scope of Practice. Retrieved from http://www.nysna.org on 18/6/2013.


Published in Nursing
Monday, 10 February 2014 12:31

Trends in Nursing: 2004 and Beyond

Trends in Nursing: 2004 and Beyond


The article Trends in Nursing: 2004 and beyond is quite informatory and has enabled me to prepare psychologically for the pressures found in the nursing profession. The revelation of an increasing nurse shortage as presented in trend 1 has motivated me to commit myself to the profession. The article indicates that work pressures and financial constraints are making trained nurses abandon their careers. The article has made me realize that nurses in training need to commit themselves to their professionals. Personally, the article has enabled me realize that I need to volunteer in my local health services. By volunteering, I will be able to offer my skills and health care expertise, as well as reducing work pressures that the nurses at the facility would be experiencing. It is through voluntary work that I will also manage to gain adequate experience in case I am posted to a health care facility that lacks adequate nurses to offer first-time hands on training.


Trend 9 on web-based nursing degrees has also given me hope on advancing my education in the nursing field. In most instance, the demanding nature of nursing means that a nurse has to take a break from his career to study. Such education-based breaks contribute to nurse shortages across the country. I intend to further my studies one’s I stabilize in my career, and the realization that I can study online has heightened my desire to work hard in my professions. I intend to take a master’s course years after working at a reputable health facility. I will retain my job at the health care facility and still study during my free time. Online nursing courses are beginning to gain recognition, and this will make it possible for me to study and advance in my studies.


Reference

Stokowski, L. (2004). Trends in nursing. Topics in advance practice nursing ejournal. Vol 4(10


Published in Nursing
Monday, 10 February 2014 12:27

BMI

BMI


Her BMI is 26.7. Her level of disease risk is relatively low because she is slightly overweight.  However, other measurements such as cholesterol level and distribution of fat would be necessary to conclude on her disease risk level.Her daily energy need is 1973 calories while her energy requirement is approximately 1700. This values slightly differ from the one provided in the table. The difference could be due to the fact that the figures presented in the table are for standard individuals.  This creates a deficient of approximately 300 calories in a day.  In order to lose 1 pound in a week, Tonya needs to lose 250 calories in a day.   2 pound per week is not realistic given her sedentary life style and her choice of physical activities.  The target would put much pressure on her.


The amount of calories she would burn walking 305 mph is 231 calories given that she was walking at a slow pace and on a level ground.  Given that, in an hour, she is losing 231 pounds, in a week she would lose 1617 calories.   


In order to avoid feeling hungry, Tonya should consume high fiber diet. High fiber diet provides physical satisfaction without adding the total calories consumed. Tonya should also consume whole grain foods instead of consuming highly refined products.  Whole grain foods are high in fiber and take a longer time in the digestive system thereby providing physical satisfaction.  Tonya may also adjust her eating frequency to small frequent meals instead of eating three main courses.   In order to reduce her consumption of soft drinks,  Tonya may choose to drink fresh fruit juices or consume fresh fruits. 


Published in Sociology
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