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Items filtered by date: February 2014

Tuesday, 18 February 2014 09:57

Digitizing Patients Records: EMR

Digitizing Patients Records: EMR


The process of digitizing patient’s records is slowly becoming a reality in health care facilities. Health care practitioners are adopting the digitized system of recording patient’s information.  However, the successful implementation of patient records can be achieved if the facility has embraced diversity. It is through diversity that employees familiar with EMR technologies will teach those that are unfamiliar with the field. It is also with diversity that employees will have the desire to embrace changes that are meant to boost operations within the health care facility. The management should be ready to integrate changes that are bound to bring positive results to the facility. This paper shall take a critical analysis at the benefits of diversity in relation to the adoption of EMR as a system design in health care facility.


Steve Lohr of the New York Times writes a comprehensive article on why tech companies are pushing for the digitization of patient records across the country. The increased emphasis on records digitization has seen numerous technology companies strive to make the digitization process easy for large, medium and small healthcare facilities. Technology giants such as general Electric, IBM and Verizon are making preparation to ensure that the technologies needed by health care facilities are readily available (Lohr, 2009).

Electronic health care records, if properly set up and deployed can assists in improving patients care and minimizing costs and expenses that healthcare facilities face. According to Lohr, (2009) electronic health records enable a health care facility to hold large volumes of patient information. Details such as a patient’s health history, medications, lab tests and treatment guidelines can all be record and stored in the electronic medical record. Unlike the manual form of record keeping, EMR allows a patient record to be stored and retrieved with ease.

The availability of patient’s history and previous medical records also minimizes the need for unnecessary tests. Prior medical reports about a patient can be used as the basis for determining the next course of action with regard to patient care. EMR technology also minimizes medical errors that are common with the manual system of filling patient’s records. In the manual system, the probability of mixing up medical records of different patients is high. This is especially so if a patient has voluminous records of data (Lohr, 2009).

EMR technology also improves the chances of the patient receiving optimal care. With an elaborate medical history, a physician is capable of making proper prognosis and care to a patient. The article also analyzes the skepticism in adopting the EMR technology in small health care facilities and clinics. These clinics perceive the EMR technology as costly and complex hence complicate operations at the facility rather than make work easier. However, over and above the technical and financial concerns, every health care facility strives to adopt delivery strategies that reduce expenses and other technical issues in the organization. Health care facilities concerned about costs and complex nature can be assured that technologies such as wireless connections and affordable hardware promise clinics a less cumbersome shift to digital patient record (Lohr, 2009).


The shift to digital patient records will eventually become a mandatory prerequisite for healthcare facilities that desire to excel. The main hurdle when integrating digital technologies in an environment that is used to manual operations is expertise. A health care facility may desire to adopt a technology such as EMR, but may lack the technological expertise.

Employees may be unsure of their competence hence object to the implementation of patient records digitization process. However, the problem of utilizing a patient record can be resolved by embracing diversity. Diversification for purposes of problem solving with regard to adoption of electronic patient records involves hiring employees with different expertise, intellect and perspectives. A health care facility accustomed to the manual system, of record keeping may be adamant to change. The management of such a health care facility can focus on hiring individuals who have experience of academic knowledge of using such a system. This new employee will expose employees to the system hence provide prerequisite on-the job training (Page, 2008). The ability of a health care facility to have employees with such knowledge will also ensure that operations within the facility remain unaffected with the shift to digital patient records.

A health care facility with a team that is open and receptive to change will also have an easy time shifting to EMR technology. Cognitive diversity refers to the differences in perspective and methods of approaching problems. A healthcare facility that has a team of physicians, nurses and support staff that believes that a change to EMR technology will serve the good of the facility will shift with ease compared to a health facility with a team that is not receptive to change. A receptive team will have employees with diverse perspective in resolving the problem of implementation and use. Such a team will have more than one way to resolve the problem it will face with the implementation of the technology. This is because when one approach fails, another one will be adopted with ease.


 The implementation of EMR technology in health care facilities represents a viable solution to the myriad of problems that health care facilities face during a health care delivery. As it is often said “man is to err”; unfortunately, the occurrence of errors in the health care industry can be fatal. A medical error can, for instance, result to the death of a patient. The presence of electronic medical records significantly reduces the frequency of errors during patients care.

Errors such as medications errors can become frequent especially when nurse misreads the medication amount written by the doctor. A nurse also risks mixing up the names of the patients and giving patients with similar names different medications (Page, 2008). EMR will reduce these human errors as each patient will have his or her personal details fed into a certified system. Information such as the patients, illness and medication will be entered correctly into the system. A nurse who desires to provide a patient with a prescribed medication can simply access his records in the EMR system.

EMR technologies also ascertain the safety and security of patient’s medical records. Circumstances related to loss or misplacement of medical files will be non-existent. The risk of damage to medical files will also be non-existent as health care facilities will store patient records and also keep back up for all patient records. The EMR system will also minimize the problem of duplication of documents, which can be costly for any organizations. EMR system ensures that patient’s records are centralized at one point. Physicians or nurses who may require the information can access it on the EMR system with ease (Page, 2008). The EMR system allows for more than one health care practitioner to access patients health care at one time.

The transfer of patient’s records as in the case of patients transfer will also be enhanced with EMR system. The manual system of physically moving a patient’s record from one health care facility to another is not efficient. The risk of mix up of loss of patient’s records is high. The EMR system provides a lasting solution where transfer of patient’s records is prompt and secure.

The manual system of record keeping may be considered simple, but the risks are higher than the electronic system.  The lack of an EMR system in a health care facility means that the facility is using the manual system. The main problem that such as health care facility would face is excess paperwork. Physicians and nurses must write a detailed description of their patients, at the end of each patient visit. In the end, the health care facility spends a lot of time with paper work. The task of storing and retrieval medical records can also become time consuming especially if the facility is busy.

The risk of medical errors is also high as healthcare providers use hand written medical records to make prognosis and undertake various medical actions. An individual’s handwriting may be difficult to read hence the risk of errors due to illegible writing can arise. EMR systems allow for typing of patients records hence spelling errors are minimal. Handwritten medical records have been found to be the reason of increased medical errors during medication procedures (Page, 2008). The problem of medical and medication errors, due to ineffective patient record system can be resolved through the adoption of the electronic medical records. Organizations are seeking alternative means to save on time and costs of operations, and the EMR is ideal in effective patient care. A health care facility that has embraced diversity must work towards integrating EMR systems into its operations. The employees must realize and accept that embracing EMR would be an ideal way to save on time and minimize the occurrence of medical errors that can be costly for the health care facility.


The electronic medical records system is changing the mode of operations in the health care facility.  The article indicates that tech companies have been pushing for health care facilities to digitize their records. EMR has enabled healthcare facilities to merge its functions in one centralized system. A healthcare facility have diverse department with different medical records. An elaborate EMR system allows for the unification of the documentation practices into a unified system. Employees need to embrace the change that is manifested through the adoption of EMR system. A diverse pool of employees means that the willingness to change to an improved system will be done with ease. A team that is willing to adapt to positive change will readily embrace EMR as an alternative technology that will enhance service provisions. EMR has been found to be effective in safeguarding patient records, unifying functions and ensuring that medical records are safe.


Lohr, S. (2009). Tech companies push to digitize patient’s records. New York Times. September 10 2009

Page, S. (2008). The Difference: How the Power of Diversity Creates Better Groups, Firms, Schools, and societies. Princeton university press

Published in Nursing
Tuesday, 18 February 2014 09:52

Research Method and Design

Research Method and Design

           In this chapter, I will examine the design and methodology of my research topic. I will start by providing a description of the research methodology and present an outline of the pilot study. I will also present an outline of selecting participants to assess the needs of After-School programs. Data collection, instrumentation, ethical considerations, methodological assumption, and research design will then be discussed.

Research Methodology and Design

The goal of my research topic determines How Effective Are Afterschool Teachers to Work with Students with Autism or Emotional Behavioral Disorders. I will answer my research question by interviewing teachers of after school programs, parents of students with Behavioral and Emotional disorders and the management team of after school programs. Knowing the ability of after-school programs to handle students with Behavioral and Emotional disorders and autism will assist students be competent in class and learn social and communication skills. This will see that students with special needs are given an equal opportunity as their counterparts to excel in class and final exams scores.

Through this research, it will be possible to conduct a needs assessment of after-school programs so as to ensure that teachers of these programs are provided with the necessary skills and knowledge on how to handle students with autism and emotional/ behavioral disorders. The needs assessments will also guide in the provision of the necessary facilities required by students with special need hoping to be part of the after-school programs. Through this study, it will be possible to come up with a handbook to guide policy makers and staff members of after school programs gain confidence and be effective in working with children having autism and EBDS.

There are various literature materials calling for a recreation of educators to be trained in integration (McGhee et al., 2005; Hutchison et al., 2008; Rosenzweig et al., 2008). However, there are limited resources, especially in community based- after school programs, to employ experts who can help to train the teaching staff on how to work with special needs students. Identifying the critical needs of after-school programs will help to give best results and recommendations that are informative and practical. In order to establish the needs of teachers in after school programs, I used the grounded theory approach.

The grounded theory approach was established by sociologist Strauss and Glaser in the 1960s (Charmaz, 2006). The grounded theory is not like the positivist deductive approach that aims to collect data as a way of disproving or approving a given hypothesis that has been developed. Grounded theory is a method of qualitative research whereby data is used to generate theories and themes concerning a process.

For me to find data on my research question I used the format of qualitative semi structured interview that targets teachers of after-school programs, parents of children with special needs and the heads/managers of after- school programs. I analyzed the themes generate by participants, mainly on their opinions and perceptions about educators ability to work with Children suffering from autism and EBDs. Based on the themes I had to find areas in need of improvements based on what parents, educators and after-school program leaders feel.

Pilot study

I will first generate a set of initial questions to assess needs as per the common and recurring themes in the research literature. This is detailed in the Instrumentation section. In order to find the recurring themes, I piloted a list of questions with the help of three staff members who showed that they have experience, skills and knowledge of handling students with EBDs and autism. Two of the staff members had more than five years experience in teaching children with special needs in after school programs while the other one had one year experience in the after-school program and had the training required for working with students with EBDs and autism. The three were only to give support and not to participate in the actual study.

I informed the informants about the schedule of the interview about the after-school programs needs such as the qualification of teachers, availability of resources and facilities and how parents feel towards the program. However, I did not transcribe or record the responses they gave me. I informed the informants my main goal of the research, which is to establish the needs of after school programs and to come up with the best way of teachers to integrate effectively children with autism and EBDs into the after-school programs.

After the interview process, informants of the pilot study are presented with a list of questions and to give suggestion on changes aiming to improve quality and clarity of questions. They were also asked if some questions were appropriate need to add or omit some from the list. The process took a period of 45 minutes to find the opinion of each informant.

The pilot study feedback helped be to remove other questions and change the wording of the list of questions on my initial list. I, for example, removed the question that says, “Do you think it is essential for this after school program to enroll students with autism and EBD?” This is a question that would not have given me good data according to the comments of one of my supervisor. He suggested that I replace this question with, “to your opinion, which is the major benefit of incorporating students with special needs in after school program? After the completion of review and questions piloting from my list, I now went ahead to conduct the assessment of actual needs.


The set of questions in the first category in identifying the after- school teachers needs is mainly based on literature materials on students with autism and EBDs. The questions are also guided by my personal experience on how children with special needs can be supported through after-school programs. The second category of questions is as per certain studies that mention the anecdotes of successful ways of working with special students (Cross et al., 2004; Hutchison et al., 2008). The third set of research questions directed towards the benefit that children with special needs enjoy when they are part of after-school programs (Rosenzweig, 2008, Durlak et al., 2010).

The fourth, fifth and six questions present the challenges those teachers of after-school programs face in their effort to integrate students with special needs. These questions are supported by various research articles (Scholl et al. 2005; McGhee et al. 2005; Jinnah-Ghelani and Stoneman 2009).

Question seven involve ways of overcoming challenges such as expert training, education of after school teachers and the need for teachers of after school programs to communicate with regular teachers. This is because the regular teachers are knowledgeable about the characteristics of the students. Question 8 is on modeling behaviors as shown in the works of Hutchison et al., (2008) and Dellamattera, (2011). Question 9 is directed to parents and involves the role of parents in policy changes (Jinnah-Ghelani & Stoneman, 2009; Brewin et al., 2008; Rosenzweig et al., 2008).

I used the triangulation process in the development of questionnaire so as to validate the actual data. This is a method that helps to verify observations as based on three different sources (Yin, 2011). The questions are guide by literature sources on this topic and my personal experience.


I selected staff members from 6 different after-school programs. Staff members were selected from each of the six centers, four teachers from each, 10 parents representing each of the six community based program close to them, and six leaders representing each of the after schools. The following aspects are used for recruiting the program leaders and staff members; leadership and experience. Four participants representing each of the programs is a small sample size, but it is sufficient to get the actual findings intended for this research.

Theoretical saturation according to Charmaz (2006) occurs when there is sufficient data in qualitative research to support analysis and the made conclusion (Charmaz, 2006). For me to understand the in-depth ideas of the participants, I held face to face interviews with the four teachers of representing their after school programs. I also held discussions and interview with the leaders of these after school programs. For parents, they were to fill in a questionnaire and return them the after-school program.

Data collection

After informing teachers and heads of the after school programs of my intention, I asked them via email on the convenient time and place to conduct the interview. I also sent parents with an interview guide and consent form and asked them that those willing to participate to inform me 24 hours before the commencing of my interview schedule.

I used the RCA RP5120-A digital voice recorder to record interviews. I then uploaded the interviews file to a Mac Book. I ensured the safety of the folder before transcribing them into Microsoft Word. The participants were free to inform me areas where they wanted their identity to be protected, and I respected that. They were also free to inquire for a copy of their recording.

Data Analysis

My goal was to reach an understanding on the experts view on the main issue of accommodating children with special needs in after school programs. This is by looking at what the literature says and comparing with the interview transcripts themes. I order to identify the actual needs for after- school educators I used inductive analysis. The main areas for analysis were on communication among staff, parents and students, experience and results, skills and education, teacher’s perception and integration strategies.


The main assumptions guiding this research method is that the suggested ideas and findings will be helpful in changing the perception and knowledge of afterschool program staff. Staff members will also internalize vital information on how to work with special students. The teachers of after school programs with greater experience will provide insights on their ability to work with students of special needs.


The fiscal and temporal constraints in this study meant the use of a small size of participants. There is lack of diversity in experience and perspective of the larger community (Yin, 2011). However, according to the purposive sampling method used, I managed to select participants with the greatest experience. The data meant that it was possible to attain my research goals. I also acknowledged the fact that each after school program has unique qualities and none can be the same with; however, I had to generate similar results of all the centers.

There was also the limitation of a few staff members. This is likely to result into a minimal comprehensive picture of the actual needs of teachers in dealing with children with special needs. However, by incorporating program directors and parents, I will have better results. Having a comprehensive picture that involves the views of children with special needs is vital in the development of integration strategies into the after-school programs (Kishida & Kemp, 2010; Hutchison 2008).

Another challenge is the biases I have placed in various after school programs. For example, I am likely overrepresented the role of the after-school program teachers in the process of integrating students more that the role of program directors, volunteers, auxiliary staff, parents and the role of children. Despite this limitation, the research studies management to generate useful data that can help teachers of after-school programs and also present useful recommendations.

Attaining credibility

Through the results triangulation, selection of the right participants and members check it is possible to attain credibility. Also, my own experience in working in an after-school program as well as literature support helps in attaining credibility of findings.

Ethical consideration

The main ethical concern was to maintain confidentiality of participants. Collected data was stored in a safe and locked room so as to maintain the confidentiality.


Charmaz, K (2006) Constructing grounded theory: A practical guide through Qualitative analysis. London, UK: Sage Publication

Durlak, J, Weisberg, R, & Pecan, M (2010) a meta-analysis of after-school programs that seek to promote personal and social skills in adolescents. Journal of Community Psychology, 45, 294-309

Hutchison, P, Mecke, & Sharpe, E (2008). Partners in inclusion at a residential summer a case study. Therapeutic Recreation Journal, 42, 179-196.

McGhee, S, Groff, D, & Russoniello, C (2005) providing community-based programs for youth with emotional. Recreation Journal,32-46

Kishida, Y., & Kemp, C. (2010). Training staff to measure the engagement of children in inclusive childcare centers. International Journal of Disability,
Development, and Education, 57(1), 21-4

Yin, R (2011) Qualitative research from start to finish. New York, NY: Guildford Press

Jinnah-Ghelani, H, & Stoneman, Z (2009) Elements of successful inclusion for school-age children with disabilities in childcare settings. Child Care in Practice, 15(3), 175-191

Rosenzweig, J. M., Brennan, E. M. (2008). Child care parents of children with emotional or behavioral disorders.J Emotional and Behavioral Disorders, 16(2), 78-89

Dellamattera, J. N. (2011). Perceptions of pre service early educators: How adult support
Preschoolers’ social development
. Journal of Early Childhood Teacher Education, 32, 26-38

Scholl, K. G., Smith, J. G., & Davison, A. (2005). Agency readiness to provide inclusive Recreation and after-school services for children. Therapeutic Recreation Journal, 39(1), 47-62

Published in Education
Tuesday, 18 February 2014 09:48

Social Welfare

Social Welfare


There have been claims claiming that social welfare in not concerned with promoting the wellbeing of the recipient, but their compliance with particular standards of behavior. According to this statement, social welfare is not only concerned with the wellbeing of the recipients, but compliance with certain standards of behavior. In this case, the reason as to why a social welfare group exists is so that to enable people to conform to certain behavior standards. In order to be able to support poor children in the society, social welfare team will focus on supporting them through medical needs, education, and certain requirements such as  housing, food, books, and transport to and from school (Spoehr, 2009). This are strategies that can be used so that to enable these children to comply with the standard of poverty that they are in which will enable them to improve their well being.

In order to be able to have a better life, the social welfare group tends to help in promoting their education standards through providing good education, which will make the child an asset to the family instead of a liability.  Social welfare is essential because it provides people with the opportunity with improving their welfare by enabling the recipients to use the opportunities that they have provided in improving their welfare. In some case, it can be concluded that social, welfare focus on improving human welfare because when it promotes compliance with certain standards of behavior, it provides the recipients with the chance of improving their well being (Spoehr, 2009).

Social welfare

Social welfare is about how communities, people, and institutions in the society can be improved. This concerned with the wellbeing of the entire society which is not about the standard of living, but much concerned with the quality of life which involved factors like the level of crime, availability of social services, quality of environment, extent of drug abuse, and spiritual and religious aspects of life. Wellbeing can be referred to as a satisfactory or good condition of existence. This is a state that is characterized by prosperity, health, and happiness. It refers to a condition of a group or individual where their experience is positive (Scheurell, & Dixon, 2002).

The standard of behavior refers to the spirit that is exhibited in the activities and actions of people. The standard of behavior which is promoted by social welfare is considered to be one which will contribute to ensuring that people improve their wellbeing. The standards of behavior are the standards that social welfare groups are supposed to implement so that the objective of the program can be achieved. This will ensure that the recipients get what they are subjected to. The aim of standard of behavior is to ensure fullest extent possible of a caring and safe community for all people in the society.


With the compliance of behavior standards, the social welfare normally ensure that the programs conform to the standards that have been set so that to ensure that the recipients can be able to achieve what they are supposed to get from the programs. When looking at the Australian social welfare system, it supports the people in need, but the system need to be sustainable so that to make sure that they meet with the long term needs of the society. Australia is considered as a land of immigrants and a multi cultural society which has a strong sense of social justice. There is an extremely strong relationship between work and welfare in Australia. From the period of colonial settlement, there have been critiques in debate on the welfare of Australia that revolves around the relationship between welfare and work (Mendes, 2008). The spending on social welfare has been increasing over the years in terms of dollars. For the past thirty years, there has been a significant increase in the number of Australian people who are receiving government income support.

One of the most important functions of the commonwealth government is the provision of income support. The income support is an income related means tested benefit in UK for people with low income. The recipients of income support are entitled to certain other benefits like council tax benefit, housing benefit, and health costs. A person who has savings that are over £ 16000 cannot receive income support and those with over savings above £ 6000 tend to affect how much income support is to be received (Marston, & McDonald, 2005). The benefits of the government tend ti affect the living standards of the Australian population. The income support system for Australia tends to differ from others in the developed countries as it is funded from general revenue instead of from direct contributions by employers and individuals. The Australian income support is usually based on residence and need.

Since 1945, the history of Australia has been able to see periods of change in economic prosperity through the introduction of the multi ethnic and expanded immigration program. Social security is considered as a term that is normally used to describe welfare payment that is paid to individuals by the Australian government. The payments are normally funded through general taxation, but there is a specific levy for covering Medicare which is government funded health care system (Marston, & McDonald, 2005). According to this welfare systems, only the citizens and the people who have permanent residency visas can be able to claim social security benefits, the new residents can only be eligible to claim social benefit when they have been residents in Australia for 104 weeks (Spoehr, 2009). Australia is referred to as a wage earners welfare state, and wages have been kept artificially high so that to encourage and allow families to meet with their own needs.

Strength and weakness

The main strategy in Australia around welfare is an investment in employment efforts so that to get people to work. This is a worthy and commended goal where most people on welfare are highly motivated to go to work. The weakness with this strategy is that the measure of employment is contestable because a few hours per week fail to provide sufficient income that will ensure that the basic needs are met (Department of Human Resource 2013). This is a strategy that does not provide opportunities to pilot other strategies which might be effective in experiences and causes of poverty, underemployment, and unemployment. I believe the Australian social welfare has not done its best in ensuring that it helps people in improving their welfare. The weakness of the Australian social welfare in regards to work policies is that they are founded on obligations instead of rights (Chenoweth 2008). This is because of the political and social context where the welfare benefits appear to be highly targeted, and they provide low level of payments.  

When the policies are founded on obligations instead of rights, it results to people living on benefits to experience significant financial stress. Research has indicated that, despite the economic prosperity of the country, there is one in ten of Australians who is struggling to pay for some of the basic needs such as food, housing, health care and utilities and mostly cannot be able to access education, aged care, work, legal, services, and child care. This is an indication of weakness that the social welfare payment and programs have failed in ensuring that they care about the needs of people. There is also a decrease in public support on the types of payment because social security appears to be paid out of general revenue (Chenoweth 2008). The social welfare reforms appear to be changing which is deteriorating as it indicates that some people are more deserving than others.


The social welfare is and activity which is much concerned with man interacting with social circumstances. The significance of social welfare programs in Australia is concerned with nurturing the human values and its utility in the promotion of social progress. The strength of social welfare programs in Australia is that it has been able to provide assistance to individuals and families through the provision of programs that are concerned with health care, unemployment, child care assistance, housing assistance, and food stamps. The advantage of the Australian social welfare programs is that it has been able to cater for every individual in the country who is needy irrespective of their stay in the country (Australian Bureau of statistics 2008). There have been different programs that have been developed to ensure that people in the country are assisted in an appropriate manner.


Social welfare is referred to as a body of activities that are designed to enable families, individuals, communities, and groups to cope with social problems in changing conditions. Social welfare normally has a broader function in the broad area of social development of a country. Immigrants in Australia are very many which are said to have hailed largely from the European background. This is a country which is said to have changed from a settler immigration country to a country where guest workers are arriving in increasing and large numbers. Therefore, there is a significant need to ensure that immigrants are safe and secure while they are in this country. This is the reason as to why the social welfare program in Australia has made substantive efforts to help every individual in this country. Most of the people in the country arrived in the country with barely anything, and they have been able to find great success. The income security and welfare have now become obligations and responsibilities which have far more currency and this has resulted to positive outcomes to some people. a social welfare program is supposed to ensure that it caters for the well being of people through observing the standards that have been set so that to ensure that every individual is able to benefit from the payment and program without any discrimination. The standards of behavior that have been set forth need to be observed to ensure the objectives of the program are achieved.


Australian Bureau of statistics (2008). 2008 year book Australia no. 90 Australian Bureau of statistics

Chenoweth L (2008). Redefining welfare Asian social work and policy review 2

Department of Human Resource (2013). Migrants, refugees, and visitors retrieved from http://www.humanservices.gov.au/customer/themes/migrants-refugees-and-visitors

Marston, G & McDonald, C (2005). Workfare as welfare Critical social policy 25 (3)

Mendes, P (2008). Australia’s welfare wars revisited UNSW Press

Scheurell, R & Dixon, J (2002). The state of social welfare Greenwood Publishing Group

Spoehr, J (2009). State of South Australia Wakefield Press

Published in Social Sciences
Tuesday, 18 February 2014 09:42

Life Coach Services: Marketing

Life Coach Services: Marketing


            A life coach is a trained professional who works with a specific group of individuals, assisting them to make positive life changes. The life coach thus acts as the motivator and educator working with clients to achieve lasting lifestyle changes. The service of life coaching emphasizes on improving the internal functioning of a client. A person with the desire to become a life coach must make prior preparations before beginning his business.  As a life coach, Mona has specialized in assisting clients set realistic goals that will assist clients get a sense of direction in their lives.  Mona believes that it is by setting goals that an individual is able to achieve a sense of direction in his or her life.

The Case of Mona

 Mona needs an ideal strategy so as to market her service and establish her business as a favorite among many customers. Mona can use the internet and mass media to market her services. In the tech-savvy world, it is best that Mona uses available technology to market her service. It is impossible for Mona to get adequate clients without a sustainable marketing strategy. One strategy that Mona, can use is creating a web site. Mona can create a web site that indicates in detail, the services she offers. On the web site, she can have an interactive section which allows interested persons to contact her and make enquiries. Alternatively, Mona can create an informative newsletter and post it on the internet. The newsletter would be sent randomly to internet users as a form of spasm. However, rather than being unattractive and unwanted, Mona will ensure that the newsletter is attractive and calls out to the reader.

The newsletter can be simple, but attractive so as to draw the attention of the reader. It must also use simple and direct language that the reader would read and understand in a second (Schubnel, 2012). Mona should create a newsletter with catchy words and phrases that would instantly draw the reader’s attention upon opening. A catchy phrase such as “Setting realistic goals for a better life” would draw a reader to find out the main content of the newsletter.

Mona’s main clients would be those that are go-getters and achievers who feel as though they have hit a dead-end in their professional or personal life. The clients would be of either gender so as to expand her client base. It will be easier for Mona to work with such groups as they still have the drive to improve their lives.  Such a group would comprise of clients who are willing to learn vital skills that will help them improve their professional and personal lives. The life coach service will emphasize on offering a package services. The package service will emphasize on the professional and personal lifestyle improvement of the clients.  In other words, the coaching sessions will emphasize on improving the client’s overall well being (Purdie, 2010).

Marketing Strategies

 The key towards running a successful business is ensuring that customers are aware of the business hence can seek products or services from there. In the case of Mona’s life coach services, she needs to establish marketing strategies that will draw clients towards her. Mona can also place a print ad in the most read newspaper around her geographical area. The print ad will use graphical images and bright colors to draw the reader’s attention. The use of images and colors in print advertisement will be effective in attracting people to read the advertisement and get more information on the services Mona offers.

The social media can also be a reliable way that Mona can use to market her services and attract clients. Mona can open facebook and twitter pages for her life coach company. She can then use the twitter and facebook page to write about her life coach service (Schubnel, 2012). The facebook and twitter pages allow users to write limitless content hence Mona will have acquired a platform to communicate with potential clients with ease (Fairley, & Stout, 2010). Mona can ensure that the facebook and twitter handle are open and accessible to the public. This will ensure that all curious reader will access the information she writes on the facebook and twitter pages. Mona can also post short video clips on YouTube. The video clips will focus on her life of work as a life coach. The YouTube video will also provide viewers with an address with regard to clients that desire to contact her.


 The key towards running a successful life coach service is to establish a network for potential clients. Mona can rely on referrals from colleagues as well as previous clients. The ability of Mona to offer effective services will determine whether she will receive additional clients. Mona can distribute her business cards among her colleagues, friends and family so as to receive referrals. She must, therefore, inform those around her of her profession and the kind of service she offers. Mona can also network by interacting with life coaching organizations and social groups (Purdie, 2010). When she gets an opportunity to speak in any of the meetings of groups, she can mention her career and the professional service she offers. The problem with life coaching as professional service is that it is intangible, hence difficult for people unfamiliar with the service to grasp. Mona can use social groups and gatherings as a platform to educate the public about life coaching with regard to improving life.

Marketing Cost

As anew professional venture, Mona needs to establish marketing strategies that would be effective yet cheap to implement. Most of the marketing strategies selected above are cheap.  The use of social media, for instance is cheap as the process of opening up accounts and posting information is free. The use of print advertisement may cost Mona a few dollars as she has to pay to the local dailies. However, the effectiveness of these advertisements will be reflected in the number of clients that Moan will receive. A high number of clients’ means that Mona’s marketing expenses are recovered. The printing of business cards will also be costly as the cards have to be printed and professionally written. The marketing costs are bound to be felt with regard to cost and time. Mona will have to make several financial sacrifices before she finally establishes herself as a life coach (Fairley, & Stout, 2010).


The life coach business has come to gain respect and appreciation over time. The life coach professional became popular as societies began to appreciate the profession. Mona has a viable opportunity of ensuring that her business thrives. The use of technologies such as the internet and social media, as well as use of print media means that Mona has a wide variety of marketing opportunities to consider.


Fairley, S. & Stout, C. (2010). Getting started in personal nd executive coaching. John Wiley & sons

Purdie, J. (2010). Life coaching. John Wiley & sons

Schubnel, M. (2012). Packaging and pricing your coaching. Retrieved from http://www.coachandgrowrich.com/coaching-blog/how-to-package-price-your-coaching/

Published in Management
Tuesday, 18 February 2014 09:37

Emotional Intelligence

Emotional Intelligence

             Emotional intelligence is the area of cognitive ability, which involves social skills and traits that facilitate interpersonal behavior.  Since intelligence can be broadly defined as the ability to adopt a goal oriented behavior, emotional intelligence focuses on the aspects of intelligence governing social adaptation and self-knowledge. As explored by Daniel Goleman in 1995, emotional intelligence is an aspect that has the largest predictor of success in the workplace. The concept of testable emotional intelligence quotient (EQ), which is a counterpart to the intelligence quotient (IQ), has since been developed. Therefore, emotional intelligence quotient, in contrast to the intelligence quotient, which focuses on academically oriented skills, such as mathematical ability as evaluated in an IQ test, emotional intelligence test, focuses greatly on the ability of an individual to effectively deal with others. To that end, emotional intelligence evaluates traits and abilities, such as empathy and self awareness, which are sometimes referred to as soft skills.

 Since emotional intelligence can be described as managing feelings so that they may be appropriately and effectively expressed,  this social aspect enables people e to work together smoothly toward their common goal. Through this, emotional intelligence forms an important aspect in the working place. Perhaps, the major skills that make up emotional intelligence are self awareness, self management, social awareness, and relationship management. However, identifying the emotional intelligence of an individual and those of others is an important aspect in an organization because it enhances the ability to regulate and manage emotions, and can be applied in thinking and problem solving in the work place. This paper, therefore, as an analysis of an individual emotional intelligence, identifies strengths, weaknesses, as well as the leadership strategies that can be used to overcome the weaknesses.


Comfortable with emotions in general, approach to problem solving is conducive to resolution, have a positive mindset, chose good forms of resolution for other’s conflict situations on the test, doing well in the area of Emotional Management, show resilience/hardness, able to let go minor issues, able/willing to adapt individuals social skills to the surrounding circumstances, and have a healthy level of self-esteem.

Potential strengths

            Doing reasonably well in the area of Emotional Identification, Perception, and Expression


             Doing reasonably well in the area of Emotional Facilitation of Thought


 Seem to struggle to act independently


An analysis of an individual emotional intelligence identifies strengths, weaknesses, as well as the leadership strategies that can be used to overcome the weaknesses.   Characteristics such as abstract versus concrete, directive versus informative, cooperative versus pragmatic, and expressive versus attentive can be used to classify individuals based on their emotional intelligence.  The subject individual in this case is   seems to do generally well in emotional control especially in maintaining the individuals emotions and those of others.  The self esteem is perhaps good;   having a positive mindset, approach to problem solving is conducive to resolution and has a positive self stem.  However, the weakness is on the struggle to act independently.  An individual who tend to struggle independently and pay more attention to the opinions of others can be classified as cooperative.   Such an individual can work well in a group and pay less attention to an individual’s feelings, and can be a good team player.


Keirsey.com, (2013). The Keirsey Temperament Sorter. Retrieved From, http://www.keirsey.com/sorter/instruments2.aspx On July 22, 2013.

Published in Education
Tuesday, 18 February 2014 09:29

Diabetes Health Campaign

Diabetes Health Campaign

           Evidence shows that diabetes is one of the major diseases in the society that has reached epidemic proportions. Diabetes has become the 7th leading cause of death in United States. It is estimated that approximately 25.6 million people in US are affected by diabetes. This type of disease affects people in the society because of the body not using or not producing insulin in the best way. It has been discovered that, due to uncontrolled diabetes there are chances of complications development that can affect on almost every system of the human body. In the healthy people 2020 agenda, the issue of diabetes has become prevalent because it has become a national health objective. According to statistics produced by North Carolina division of public health 2010, more than 700, 000 adults were diagnosed with diabetes. The unexpected reality is that more than one-third of people livening in North Carolina have not participated in diagnosis and the screening test. Around 60 % of people in North Carolina have participated in a simple blood test that indicates whether someone has been affected by the disease. Diabetes is a disease that plays havoc on a human’s body and very costly in matters getting medications. This paper will focus on the topic of public health issues that relate to diabetes plus the impacts human errors of the population of North Carolina, (Liburd & Vinicor, 2010).

Diabetes and Health People 2020

            The healthy people 2020 national program has been running in the past few decades. The national program has been designed in scientifically approach and helps identify national goals and objectives for over 10 year period. According to centers for disease control and prevention, healthy people are necessary in the society simply because they work to improve health, disease prevention, and health promotion to every human in America. The national health improvement priorities under the benchmarks of healthy people give a clear insight on matters of health. It also works to establish education of risk factors, disability, and increases public awareness. Healthy people 2020 have the capacity to produce goals and objectives that affect the local communities, individual states, and the nation. It comes through the use of measurable data which gives credence on what the healthy people are trying to accomplish, (Meadows-Oliver & Allen, 2012). Evidence shows that healthy people have established activities that aim at keeping the society busy at all times. They push multiple sectors, agencies, and people to end standing idly by and work on an action that aids develop suitable policies based on priority health problems and improve practices by using knowledge and available evidence. Healthy people also identify vital needs that relates to data collection and on strategies that will help analyze the data.  As a result of the diabetes being prevalent in the society, the national health made an objective for healthy people 2020 program. It is true that healthy people 2020 aims at 16 objectives that assist reduce the prevalence of the disease and work on the economic burden, (Desai et al., 2011).

            Diabetes tops among the chronic disease that pose some challenges in the society if they are not controlled. In areas where the disease is not controlled in the right directions, it has been discovered that diabetes can cause severe complications. Individuals who suffer from diabetes are at a risk of stroke and heart attack. They also have a lower life expectancy by 16 years as compared to the non diabetic’s people. Diabetes leads to retinopathy, lower limb amputations, and kidney failure. The cost of treating diagnosed diabetes increase year after year. Something concerning the prevalence and cost of the disease need quick actions in order to deal and respond to the conditions in the appropriate way, (Fos & Fine, 2005).

Federal, state, and local agencies addressing diabetes

            The issue of diabetes is a burden to the people of America. Agencies from different levels are at work in developing strategies on how to address the issue of diabetes. Federal level is one of the active systems that have established several agencies to deal with the issue of diabetes. United States Department of Agriculture (USDA), office of minority health resources center, national eye institute, American diabetes association (ADA), agency of health care research and quality (AHRQ), national diabetes education program (NDEP0, national diabetes information clearinghouse (NDIC), national institute of diabetes and digestive and kidney disease (NIDDK), and disease control and prevention’s public health resource the division of diabetes translation (DDT) are some of the federal agencies. State agencies in North Carolina are tasked with handling the diabetic health issues. These agencies include North Carolina public health, North Carolina diabetes advisory council, and department of human and health resources, North Carolina diabetes education recognition program, and North Carolina state diabetes control and treatment branch. Community or local agencies tasked with handling diabetes issues focuses on how to make developments, (Liburd & Vinicor, 2010).

Models, Systems, and Epidemiological surveillance system used in diabetes analysis

            Public surveillance was the suitable method for America to learn what impact diabetes. State surveillance systems and an infrastructure of nation supported by the DDT works to report, interpret, and analyze on certain factors of diabetes. These factors include mortality, morbidity, care practices, and diabetic risk factors. The DDT has developed an environment that helps perform national surveillance of diabetes that occurs in America. The aim is to get relevant information for understating the concept of diabetes plus allows report the findings.  Challenges on this aspect exist such as the concept of gathering data, (Desai et al., 2011). Evidences show that there are a good number of people suffering from diabetes, but they have not been diagnosed something that makes it difficult for physicians to report missing data. All data collected is developed from information gathered from surveys, physician offices, and hospital stays. It is the duty of DDT to rely on stakeholders with other firms to get data.  When the data is gathered and analyzed, the relevant authorities use it to determine the prevalence of diabetes and indicators that are associated with diabetes. Data is used to determine and evaluate the effectiveness population based treatment, measuring the progress towards meeting the objectives of the nation and the state, develop any research, policy making, and care, (Meadows-Oliver & Allen, 2012).

            Tools found in other areas of health care setting are also vital in addressing any issues that relate to diabetes. Health trends, disease trends, and risk assessment trends are part of the useful tools. Investigators use these tools in determining individuals who are at risk of being affected by the disease and strategies that can be applied to stop or decrease the level of the disease. The tools are vital simply because they help in the determination of how other diseases are affected by the disease. For instance, these tools examine how humans suffering from diabetes are at a higher risk for kidney disease and heart disease, (Desai et al., 2011).

Diabetes in Ethnic and Racial Communities

            A lot has been said based on improving minority health as well as ways of accessing to health care for minorities. It is with no doubt that this disease is creating a devastating effect on most minority populations such as Asian Americans, Hispanic, Alaskan Natives, American Indians, and African American. A recent report that was released by CDC indicated that minority groups have high chances of getting diabetes as compared to the whites, (Novick et al., 2008). Complications of diabetes trend diabetes tend to be excessive in the groups that are minority. In a place like North Carolina, people with high income and education are in a better place of enjoying quality health outcomes as compared to people who have low income and low education. Diabetes has been discovered to be the 7th leading cause of death in North Carolina. The region has a lot of things to do to accommodate the prevalence of diabetes in minorities. The state surveillance systems proves to be the best approach that ensures proper intervention has been implemented and monitored to improve diabetes health care environment that targets the minority population, (Fos & Fine, 2005).


            It is with no doubt that diabetes has become among the epidemics factors in US. United States has a lot to do in ensuring that its people are safe and free from diabetes for the disease is the 7th leading in causing death. The best way to handle this is by collecting data then analyzing the data on what is supposed to be done. State and national level surveillance systems data indicate that minorities are at risk of prevalence of diabetes and complications that it develops. African Americans in North Carolina are the minority group that has a high rate of diabetes. With the help of state diabetes councils plus the support from local agencies can work together in the eradication of the disease. Healthy people 2020 program aims at working hard to accomplish objectives.


Desai, J., Geiss, L., Mukhtar, Q., Harwell, T., Benjamin, S., & Bell, R. (2011). Public health surveillance of diabetes in the United States. Journal of Public Health Management & Practice, 9(2), S44-S51

Fos, P.J., & Fine, D.J. (2005). Managerial epidemiology for health care organizations, 2E. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.

Liburd, L. C., & Vinicor, F. (2010). Rethinking diabetes prevention and control in racial and ethnic communities. Journal of Public Health Management Practice, 9(Nov), S74-S79.

Meadows-Oliver, M., & Allen, P. (2012). Healthy People 2020: Implications for Pediatric Nurses. Pediatric Nursing, 38(2), 101-105.

Novick, L.F., Morrow, C.B., & Mays, G.P., (2008). Public health administration: Principles for population-based management (2nded.). Sudbury, MA: Jones and Bartlett Pub

Published in Education
Tuesday, 18 February 2014 09:21

Learning Style Inventory

                               Learning Style Inventory

Summary of Learning Style


Total Forward







































Bar Graph












Sec 1

Sec 2

Sec 3

Sec 4

Sec 5

Sec 6

Sec 7

Sec 8

Sec 9

Summary of My Intelligence Profile

The first section illustrates that my naturalistic strength is average. This is because I attained a score of 50 and this reflects that am neither excellent nor poor in terms of naturalistic strength. From the perspective of musical strength, I am extremely excellent. This is because I attained a score of 80 in this section. The score of 20 attained in the third section indicates that I do not have adequate logical strength. Based on the analysis, intrapersonal strength is my best section since I had a score of 90. This is an essential area in terms of understanding oneself. My verbal and kinesthetic performance was also excellent in view of the 70 points I attained in both sections. Consequently, the analysis was immensely helpful in that it enabled me to identify my strengths and weaknesses in learning. This is an essential platform for boosting my intelligence.

Influence of Learning Style on Educational Program Development

Learning styles have extensive influence on the development of educational programs. In essence, the identification of an individual’s learning style serves as a focal point in the enhancement of learning outcomes (Billings & Hallstead, 2009). When the learning style of an individual has not been identified, the effectiveness of the educational program is hampered. In contrast, the effectiveness of the educational program is enhanced extensively when the learning style of an individual is identified. Consequently, the influence of learning styles on educational program design can be assessed in different dimensions. Firstly, the learning style strongly determines the type of teaching tools to be integrated into an educational program (King, 2004).

While some learning styles require technological tools such as multimedia platforms, others require the conventional platforms. In view of such an aspect, the learning style influences the choice of teaching tools while developing any educational program. Teaching tools make a massive difference in the determination of the learning outcome. This attribute accentuates the significance of learning styles in the development process. The second dimension that illustrates the influence of learning style involves the assessment and identification of a student’s learning needs. The learning style of a student is an essential factor that indicates his or her actual learning needs. Based on this framework, the educational program is aligned to the learning requirements of students in order to maximize the outcome.

Depending on an individual’s learning style, it is easy for the teacher to design an educational program that best suits the student’s needs (O’Neill, 2007). The significance of the learning style on educational programs can also be illustrated by its influence on the learning environment. Different educational programs incorporate different learning environments. Such variations are caused by the different learning styles of students. For instance, some students learn fast in a calm environment. However, such learning environments might be ineffective for some students (Bates & Poole, 2003). Consequently, this highlights the significant role played by the learning style on the design of a student’s learning environment. The structure of the curriculum can also be strongly influenced by the learning style. For instance, a highly intensive curriculum might not yield the necessary outcome due to the learning styles of the targeted students. Consequently, it is vital to align the curriculum’s structure with the learning styles of the targeted students. The extent and depth of coverage within the curriculum framework is thus dependent on the learning style (Billings & Hallstead, 2009). These aspects illustrate the different platforms through which the educational program development is affected by the learning style.

The Effect of My Learning Style on the Educational Design

My educational design is strongly influenced by my learning style. One of these effects pertains to the influence of my learning style on the recognition of a learner’s strengths and weaknesses. This is an essential part of any educational program in that it affects the outcome. As a professional in the educational sector, it is fundamentally pertinent to determine the capacity of a student. Consequently, the learning style will streamline my approach to each student (O’Neill, 2007).

The effect of the learning style on my educational design can also be identified in terms of its influence on communication. Communication with students is a sensitive aspect of education and it also determines the learning outcome. Based on such dimensions, the learning style has strong implications of my educational design. Additionally, the learning style enables me to identify the different areas where I need to enhance my intelligence. Based on the analysis, logical strength is a section where I need to enhance my intelligence. This will greatly help me in streamlining my learning style to conform to the most suitable educational design.


Bates, A.W, & Poole, G. (2003). Effective teaching with technology in higher education:    Foundations for success. San Francisco, CA: John Wiley and Sons.

Billings, D.M., & Halstead, J.A. (2009). Teaching in Nursing: A Guide for Faculty (3rd     ed.). Philadelphia, PA: W.B. Saunders. 

King, P. M. (2004). Learning partnerships: Theory and models of practice, Sterling, VA:   Stylus Publishing LLC

O’Neill, J. (2007). Understanding action learning, New York, NY: AMACOM Publishers

Published in Education
Tuesday, 18 February 2014 09:16

Japan National Report

Japan National Report

Japan history

When studying the history of Japan, it encompasses the islands of Japan and the people of Japan. The first human to arrive in Japan was in 35 000 BC. A large part of Japan is mountainous which leaves a 17% of the surface area available for agriculture. The main line of business for Japanese is products of the sea such as shellfish, fish, and edible seaweed. Yayoi is a culture group that existed between 300 and 100 BC which is an agricultural group that was growing rice fields like the Chinese. During this time, Shinto was the main religion in Japan, which had no founder, moral code, or inspired scriptures (Norman, & Woods 2000).

Buddhism was introduced to Japanese in 522 BC and scholars were sent to Japan as a means of thanks from the king of Paikche in Korea. During 607, Horyuji monastery was built, and in the monastery his own residence was built and also a chapel, known as the hall of dreams (Kingston, 2012). The capital of Japan was fixed in 710 for the first time, and it was located in Nara. It was the center of Buddhist, religion, culture, and art. In 1550, the political power was subdivided in several hundred local units that were controlled by local daimyo, which were the lords each with their own force of samurai warriors. In 1600, Tokugawa leyasu came to power, and he gave land to his supporters and set up his federal government at Edo. His period was successful and peaceful, and Japan did terminate the Christian missions and also cut off all contacts with the outside world.

The Meiji period started in 1860s and the national leadership ended feudalism, and it transformed an isolated underdeveloped island country into a world, power which closely followed the western models. Japan did control the coast and some major cities, and it set up puppet regimes, but it was not able to defeat china. The attack on the Pearl Harbor resulted to war with US and its allies. United States did occupy Japan until, 1952 and from 1955, Japan enjoyed a very high economic growth rate and it became a world economic powerhouse in engineering, electronics, and automobiles (Kingston, 2012). Since the year 1990, economic stagnation has remained a major issue with the tsunami and earthquake in 2011 which caused a massive dislocation and loss of the nuclear power supply.

Political climate

Politics in Japan is normally conducted in a framework of a parliamentary representative democratic monarchy in which the prime minister of Japan is the head of the government and also the head of the cabinet which tend to direct the executive branch. The legislative power is normally vested on the Diet that consists of the house of councilors and the House of Representatives (Cullen, 2003). Politics in Japan tend to encompass them multi party system. The judicial power is normally vested in the Supreme Court and the lower courts. Japan is considered as a constitutional monarchy that has a system of civil law. Japan constitution defines the emperor as the symbol of the state and unity of the people. The political, power is normally held by the prime minister and some other elected members of the Diet.

The political climate in Japan is a dynamic and pragmatic fusion of the modern political organizational setup and the feudal ideals following World War II that paved the way to the political maturity of Japan and the remarkable economic growth. The status of Japan as one of the world largest economy is credited to the present Japan political climate that is suitable for industrial and economic growth. The government and political form of Japan is a constitutional monarchy and parliamentary democracy. Japan politics is subjected to a number of influences like that of statism of the Prussian, liberalism of the Anglo Americans, fascism of the Europeans, Leninist and Marxist ideology, and radicalism of the French (Norman, & Woods 2000).

Japan is a member of the United Nations and it pursues a permanent membership with the Security Council, and it is among the G4 nations seeking permanent membership. However, in regards to foreign relationships, Japan tends to have territorial disputes with South Korea over Liancourt Rocks, Russia over Kuril Islands, and China and Taiwan over Senkaku Islands (Cullen, 2003). These are disputes about control of natural resources and marine like possible reserves of natural gas and crude oil. Another ongoing dispute is with North Korea over the abduction of Japanese citizens and also the nuclear weapons programs.

Economic situation

The economy of Japan is considered to be the third largest in the world in nominal GDP and the 4th largest in purchasing power parity. Japan is the second largest developed economy and the third largest automobile manufacturing country that has the largest electronic good industry. Japan is considered as an innovative country and with competition from South Korea and China, manufacturing in Japan is now focusing on precision goods and high tech (Tsutsui, 2009). There has been a modest economic growth in Japan after 2000, but there has been a recession in the economy 3 times since 2008. The sharp down turn in global demand and business investment for the exports in Japan in late 2008 did push the nation to recession. The stimulus spending by the government did help the economy in recovering during the late 2009 and 2010, but there was also a failure in 2011 by the massive 9.0 magnitude earthquake which disrupted manufacturing, but the economy is was able to bounce back because of rebuilding the economic strength on areas which are not directly affected by the tsunami and earthquake (Tsutsui, 2009).

There is a bilateral economic relation between US and Japan where the economic policy of US towards Japan is aimed at increasing access of the Japan market that stimulate domestic demand economic growth. Japan is a major market for most of the United States products which include chemicals, pharmaceuticals, agricultural products, music, commercial aircrafts, plastics, scientific and medical supplies, films, and machineries. The Japan economy is vitally essential for most of the American businesses. Economy in Japan is in an era of globalization as the strength of the Japanese industry has grown steadily with the exports growing years after year (Hofmann, 2010). The growth in the economy is supported by the strong private sector facilities investment that is based on the high personal savings reaction that is accompanied by the significant changes in the industrial structure of Japan. Previously, the mainstays of the economy were light manufacturing and agriculture, but the focus has now shifted to heavy industry that includes ship building, motor vehicles, machine tools, electronic devices, and iron and steel.


Cullen, L (2003). A history of Japan Cambridge University Press

Hofmann, E (2010). Japan’s Economy GRIN Verlag

Kingston, J (2012). Contemporary Japan John Wiley & Sons

Norman, E & Woods, L (2000). Japan’s emergence as a modern state UBC Press

Tsutsui, W (2009). A companion to Japanese history John Wiley & Sons

Published in Sociology
Tuesday, 18 February 2014 09:12

Occupy Wall Street Movement

Occupy Wall Street Movement


The Occupy movement was a protest that had objectives of gathering activists, students, and local organizers to respond on the economic disparity that affected most countries around the world. It was after September 17th, 2011 the protest gained momentum due to the number of a series of protests that had taken place. The protests took place in Zuccotti Park in New York City’s Wall Street, and it was after the protests the movement was named Occupy Wall Street (OWS). The protest is an international protest movement which has moral foundation that appears to be focused around liberty from oppression, care, and fairness. The moral issues focused by the movement are based on the undue influence of corporations on government, corruption, greed, inequality, economic, and undue influence of a corporation on the financial services sector, (Gleason, 2013).

The primary goal of this movement is to make the power relations and economic structure in society fairer. Most of the views of the moral implications and protesters are to fight for government involvement and develop concerns for the 99 percent that are not in a position to afford basic requirements. According to the protesters of OWS, the economic system is not fair where it is set up in a way such that poor people are getting poorer, and the rich are getting rich. The rich are those on the Wall Street who represent 1 percent, and it’s believed by the protesters that these people became rich by taking and never gave out. According to the OWS protesters, the rich people are just like cheaters who exploit the society in order to get way to the top position they want, (Crane & Ashutosh, 2013).

They further argue that the taxpayers had to bail out the rich after they crashed the economy. The moral economic implication behind this is that the rich own the taxpayers for saving their necks, and it’s the right time they compensate and pay them. The OWS view in on the wall street of the rich group which represented by one percent. In justifying their wealth, the rich make the claim that everybody gets what they deserve and that an individual must earn his or her way. They create some stories that explain how people rise from rags to riches and that this is what makes America the prosperous and unique nation. The rich claim that some of the poor people believe that the nation is dead thus giving them a share of the wealth they will have no aspiration to work hard and get to the wealthy level, (Shaw, 2010).

Based on liberty from the oppression, it was the sense of OWS or hope that the downtrodden masses (poor) were in the process of uniting in order to throw off the yoke of their oppressors (rich) or one percent. Unemployed workers, white collar, and union workers are getting to work together toward severing. The protesters describe this as a dangerously cozy relationship between Washington D.C. and the Wall Street that has affected democracy in the United States and the globe at large. The protesters have a clear message; to rein in the influence of big firms, which has manipulated and cheated its way to great wealth while leaving a trail of impoverished and oppressed victims in its wake, (Kreiss & Tufekci, 2013).


Utilitarianism is the view that the morally right action is that helps contribute to the most good. Utilitarian believe that they are all individuals and that the society is only the product of the result of their individual choices. Policies of utilitarianism are defined by the aspects that develop the greatest good to the largest number of people in the society. The theory of utilitarianism best applies in the world of OWS simply because the group believes that the rich does not actually pay fairly in their share. The government according to the movement need to work on the policies that will lead to equality and disproportionate share of economic wealth and develop an environment where there is no class system of those ho haves and have nots. Ethics of Kantian are focused on the individual; they are deontological revolving around duty of an individual rather than end goals or emotional feeling, (Crane & Ashutosh, 2013).

The individual’s actions should result from the moral obligation that rests upon someone’s duty which does not require any reference. According to Kant, the able citizens should be in the frontline helping or supporting people in society who could not be able to support them. As the OWS claims, Kantian ethics are evidenced because the movement demands that the government should intervene and help the poor. They claim that they should be given the same benefits that the rich enjoy such as fair taxation, healthcare, and higher education. This is to fight corrupt politicians and end the influence of big firms. Virtue ethics is the morality that defines the character or identity of a person rather than acting like a reflection of the actions. It is believed that good character traits of a person will in turn allow an individual to develop correct decisions later in life. Some characteristics are virtues where those who possess them have what defines one moral. Actions of an individual are the reflection of their inner morality. The OWS exhibits virtue ethics as the unemployed, white collar, non union, and union workers in working together helping each other in aspects that may have tested the boundaries of generosity and kindness of the rich, (Gleason, 2013).


Political choices and policies that develop some impacts to government policies are believed to be responsible for wealth and income inequality distribution. This is because fiscal policies determine how wealth and income are distributed; which includes the assistance provided to those who are struggling to get through. It is clear that tax rules have no impact on shaping the character of the economy and the distribution of wealth to the society. Tax rule fairness is one of political aspects, which try to favor the rich. The united states have decided to spend a smaller percentage of the GDP in assisting combat inequality and pursue on policies that are intended to assist the bottom half of the people to advance financially. This is the reason why we have a gap between the poorest 10 percent and wealthiest 10 percent and it’s still widening as compared to any other industrialized nation, (Shaw, 2010).    

The issue of inequality in wealth distribution in the society did not occur suddenly; it is something that developed over time. Evidence shows that government spending began diverging in the early 1960s while the income inequality started diverging in the 1970s. The United States is one of the nations that has always prided about its economy. It has always claimed that it is the land of upward mobility and opportunity, but recent research shows that the economy is becoming rigid, and development of class bound. The administration of President Reagan created an environment that favored in the reduction of government programs and developed the largest tax cuts in the history of United States. The administration developed and enacted some economic policies in 1981 which were named Reaganomics. These economic policies were examples of supply side economics that assisted in the development of the economy. The aim of the Regan administration was to encourage entrepreneurship activities and limit the growth of social spending in the society plus reduces government inflation and regulation, (Kreiss & Tufekci, 2013).


A great deal of inequality in the capitalist society exists where the aspect of capitalism can be worked on so that poverty and inequality are reduced. It is the work of the markets to deliver on the aspects of improving the standards of living of the society. This is to allow individuals a chance to use their skills, so as to get right decent work at decent pay, and for a fairer society and economy, and one that treats citizens with dignity. The democracy where people not dollars matter in the nation. The two demands according to what has been there been related: it is clear that unregulated markets do not develop good results as compared to the regulated markets. In order to have markets that operate in a manner expected, appropriate government regulation should be established. For that to exist, the nation has to have a democracy that reflects the general interests of the society and not the special interests that are for the rich people in the country, (Crane & Ashutosh, 2013).

It is with no doubt a decent capitalism should encompass three interrelated dimensions. In the first place, the model should promote ecologically sustainability; changing to a renewable energy basis and prevent global warming. It should also help prevent other problems developments such as a reduction of biodiversity. The second thing is that the model should be in such a way that its targeted growth process is not affected by ensuing deflation and asset market inflation. On the same, it should not result in an excessive indebtedness condition of the people market sectors, thereby inevitably contributing to the next crisis. The capitalist model should be in a position to promote innovation, increase labor productivity, and the growth of prosperity. The third aspect is critical because all societal groups should have or get a share in the social progress and development. Everyone should be entitled to a decent living thus inequality of wealth and income distribution should be socially and politically acceptable limits, (Shaw, 2010).


In some point, it is clear that protesters have managed to achieve some great deal; think media, government agencies, and tanks have confirmed their allegation. The failures are not just because of the market system but due to unjustifiable and high level of inequality. It is clear that no one is certain on the direction of the movement. Some point we can be sure; for the protesters have been able to alter public consciousness and discourse of the politicians and ordinary citizens alike. A good number of restrictions have been established on OWS protests. Barriers have been implemented, overnight stays do not work, sleeping bags and tents are no longer allowed, and the protests are still surviving. OWS may not have gotten everything they required to get out of this, but it’s true that protested indicated that if a society wants something changed, it requires some understanding and cooperation of its participants, (Gleason, 2013).


Crane, N., & Ashutosh, I. (2013). A Movement Returning Home? Occupy Wall Street After the Evictions. Cultural Studies/Critical Methodologies, 13(3), 168-172. doi:10.1177/1532708613477366

Gleason, B. (2013). #Occupy Wall Street: Exploring Informal Learning About a Social Movement on Twitter. American Behavioral Scientist, 57(7), 966-982. doi:10.1177/0002764213479372

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Published in Sociology

Rules of Engagement (ROE) and Limited War Ideology


Rules of Engagement or ROE, as is popularly referred to, is a model of leadership that has been used since several centuries ago. For instance, historical military wars that had been fought both before and during world wars applied leadership models involving written principles and where combat soldiers are trained on rules of engagement. ROE is beneficial in that participants at the lowest level in the chain of command make decisions that are in line with the mission as defined by higher level ranks in the chain of command. It promotes mission accomplishment, compliance with policy and law, and force protection. However, it can be costly owing to the inflexibility in terms of actions to be done and how they are to be done. In the Vietnam War, the American military mission was carried out following the rules of engagement, with respect to the chain of command (Davidson, 1991). This paper discusses the limited war ideology, in the context of the Vietnam War.

The Chain of Command during the Vietnam War

  1. Individual Soldiers in the Field

      In the Vietnam War, the infantry soldiers were supposed to take orders from the battalion commanders.  They were responsible for the implementation of the mission activities as planned and directed by the combatant commanders. In the perspective of the lower-level soldiers, the limited war ideology did not have much meaning. Their main concern was undertaking the job that faced them and ensuring that they protect their lives. Issues of world politics and the grand strategy for the mission were secondary to their immediate strategies to protect their lives and their friends. The rules of engagement made the war of the combat soldiers difficult. They felt that the rules instituted by the higher levels of command did not allow them to fight as effective as they had wanted.

  1. Battalion Commanders

      The battalion commanders were the second from the bottom of the chain of command during the Vietnam War. They made the day-to-day decisions for the ground soldiers. In relation to the other levels, Battalion Commanders had a high operational freedom, depending on the operations and the kind of force that they had. Colonel David Hackworth has been recognized by military scholars as one of the best leaders during the Vietnam War. He respected orders or rules of engagement as directed by the higher-level officers, but bended rules whenever it was essential to make his combat units effective while, at the same time, making the Division Commanders happy.  For instance, Col. Hackworth sometimes used the guerrilla tactics used by the National Liberation Front (Viet Cong guerrillas).

  1. Division Commanders

      The division commanders reported to the American General in charge of the War. In general, combat engagements during the Vietnam War took place at the company and platoon levels and sometimes at the divisional level. The divisions, led by commanders, carried out operations involving engaging their platoons and companies on patrols. In relation to the Rules of Engagement, the division commanders were a hindrance to units’ combat operations because they had a high requirement for responsibility and accountability for institutional policies. This restricted their scope of decision making and freedom in influencing the war.

  1. General William Westmoreland

      In the Vietnam War, American General William Westmoreland was the Commander in charge of the United States military operations in the Asian country, between 1964 and 1968 (Sorley, 2011). He is the person who had full responsibility of the War. In fact, he is fully responsibility for the failure of the grand strategy. During the time of the war, he was required to report to the then Secretary of Defense on the progress of the war. His duty was to oversee the mission and implement the decisions that were taken by the government and passed down to him through the Secretary of Defense. He believed that the National Liberation Front could be defeated by enforcing the use of air power, artillery, and large-unit battles.

  1. Secretary of Defense Robert McNamara

      The Secretary of Defense Robert McNamara carried the decisions of the government and advised General William Westmoreland about the direction to be taken, with respect to the US’s strategy for the War (Sorley, 2011). He also informed the president on the situation on the battlefield as informed by the US General. Secretary McNamara said afterwards that the strategy failed because the United States underestimated the mission, particularly ignoring the significance of the challenges experienced by the soldiers on the ground. The United States supported the government of South Vietnam, irrespective of the fact that the government was undemocratic, and, hence, unpopular with the people. It was only after the National Guard was mobilized following his recommendation that the United States’ forces had a significant impact, in the Vietnam War (Davidson, 1991).

  1. President Lyndon Johnson

      President Lyndon Johnson was at the top of the Chain of Command, in the Vietnam War. He made the final decision in terms of the grand strategy. In the War, the limitations of the ROE model were evident. The President made a decision not to mobilize the national troops for the Vietnam War. He did this despite the recommendation made by the Secretary of Defense McNamara, who asked the president to mobilize 235,000 national guards and reserves. The president felt that sending the National Guard would expose the US’s strategy to the Chinese, and might negatively influence the US’s intervention in the War. In addition, the President was conscious about using the national forces because he feared they could be needed to fight the Korean War in case it erupted again. The President thought that the War in Vietnam was insignificant and would be through within a year.


In Vietnam, all American units from the infantry soldiers to the division level had a responsibility to understand and act in accordance with the rules of engagement that came down from the US Army headquarters in Vietnam (Moss, 2010). The limited war ideology has been associated with aggressive international actions. This is because it ensures political correctness of the procedures and actions taken by the military. For national policy, mission, and security actions, the ideology is vital as it defines within which legitimate actions can be taken. It defines national security and provides the context in which decisions regarding policy are made. However, in relation to the limitations inherent in the ROE, historical difficulties such as those witnessed in the Vietnam War must be taken seriously.


Davidson, P.B., (1991), “Vietnam at War: The History, 1946-1975”, Oxford: Oxford University Press

Moss, G.D., (2010), “Vietnam: An American Ordeal”, New York, NY: Peachpit Press

Sorley, L., (2011), “Westmoreland: The General Who Lost Vietnam”, New York, NY: Houghton Mifflin Harcourt

Published in Sociology
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