Items filtered by date: December 2013
The Sarbanes-Oxley Act
Neuroimaging In Respect To Autistic Children
Autism is a medical condition encompassing disorders defined by failure of a child to develop language (Mody & Belliveau, 2012). Autism spectrum disorders are presented through symptoms including impaired verbal and non-verbal communication, disordered reciprocal social interaction, and limited repetitive behavior (Bigler et al., 2007). The ability to diagnose language deficit in young children is extremely significant given that the adequacy of a child’s speech before the age of five is a strong sign for desirable outcomes in autism. Diagnostic procedures that utilize neuroimaging techniques examine the brain and behavioral anomalies related to language and speech, and relate them to observed social deficits, to provide the basis for behavioral and pharmacological interventions (Minshew & Keller, 2010).
Review of Literature
Language Characteristics of Autism
In order to understand the diagnostic techniques and treatment procedures, a review of literature on neuroimaging studies of language and social communication in autism, with respect to the development of children, is necessary (Bigler et al., 2007). Impairment in the development of language and social communication is a vital element of the diagnostic criteria for autism spectrum disorders. Characteristics that are variable such as sensory processing and attention elements that extend beyond the core symptoms interact with the core symptoms, enhancing heterogeneity, in terms of the presentation of symptoms. Therefore, the variation in language may vary from non-verbal to a highly idiosyncratic language with unusual inflection or tone (prosody). Approximately half of all cases of autism involve intellectual disabilities. Autistic children within the normal range of IQ are categorized as high functioning even if they have significant communication and language deficits. Autism spectrum disorders have language characteristics including difficulty with social communication, articulation, grammar, and vocabulary (Minshew & Keller, 2010).
In the majority of cases, children presenting with ASD often have impaired receptive and expressive language, which may vary depending on age and level of development (Bigler et al., 2007). In addition to the variation with respect to age, gender, and level of development, the progress of the different spectrum disorders with respect to language development also varies depending on IQ, attention, and comprehension skills. In view of the complexity in the presentation of language impairments by children with the different spectrum disorders, it is clear that the diagnostic procedures are challenging. Despite this challenge, it must be recognized that identifying the presence of speech before the child attains five years presents a high outcome predictor value. This provides the impetus for developing early language and speech programs for children on the autism spectrum disorders. In recognition of the complexity coming from the heterogeneity of the condition, neuroimaging studies can provide a means for gaining good knowledge of the mechanisms of speech interruption in autism (Minshew & Keller, 2010). Studies have revealed a high heredity of language and communication deficits, with a heritability of 0.07 (Mody & Belliveau, 2012). Some studies have also revealed that autism varies with gender affecting girls less than boys at a factor of 1 to 4 (Ibid).
Neuroimaging Studies of Language Impairment
When it was diagnosed for the first time by Hans Asperger and Leo Kanner, autism was perceived as a psychiatric disorder, with mental retardation and the associated social awkwardness, the characteristic symptom (Mody & Belliveau, 2012). However, in the course of time, research has provided information that has led to the accurate definition of autism and classification of the different disorders under the umbrella name of autism spectrum disorders. There have been noted inconsistencies in study findings across neuroimaging studies that have been conducted on autism (Bigler et al., 2007). These differences are yet to be reconciled, but recent studies have uncovered vital information that can help in diagnosing autism early enough to facilitate the development of intervention mechanisms for the treatment of the disorders (Minshew & Keller, 2010).
Neuroimaging studies on autistic children and those who are low functioning are limited (Mody & Belliveau, 2012). The primary reason is because of the difficulties with child compliance during the process of scanning. The ability of the subject to stay still during scanning is crucial for data acquisition. This is a significant challenging when dealing with the population of young children. Recent developments in hardware, software, and creative paradigms for data acquisition have increased the capabilities to scan young children and other clinical populations with ASD, dramatically.
In terms of software, an example of improvements is the data acquisition protocols, which incorporate online motion correction (Minshew & Keller, 2010). In relation to hardware, a multi-channel array coils have been developed to speed up data acquisition. In terms of the paradigms for data acquisition, techniques of recording the responses to speech by the brain, while the child is sleeping, have been developed. Neuroimaging studies have shown that it is possible to acquire functional MRI data on the brain response to stimuli in extremely young children (12 months of age) while in natural sleep (Mody & Belliveau, 2012). In other studies, a general enlargement in brain volume among individuals with autism has also been noted. Analysis of cross-sectional studies of autistic subjects with varied age ranges suggests the existence of a rapid increase in brain volume within the first two years of the life of an autistic child (Bigler et al., 2007).
Through research on the presentation of autism, a detailed characterization has been achieved paving the way for the recognition of the different phenotypes that make up the disorder (Minshew & Keller, 2010). Included in the autism spectrum disorders are Asperger’s syndrome, pervasive developmental disorder, and autistic disorder. In view of the research studies done to describe the various spectrum disorders, there is a consensus as to the categorization of the disorders and variation in their presentation and severity.
According to Minshew & Keller (2010), some of the techniques that are essential in investigating brain function in children suffering from autism spectrum disorders include
- Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI): It examines the ability of visual and language processing in autistic children.
- Diffusion Tensor Imaging Techniques (DTI): measures the white matter integrity in brain (anisotropy).
- Trans-cranial magnetic stimulation (TMS): investigates interruption of brain function.
Application of Research Tools, Concepts, Assessments, and Methods in Treatment of Misdiagnosed Children
Child treatment is a way of securing future generations. Autism is a significant threat to the future of young children. Diagnosis and treatment of autism spectrum disorders poses a dilemma for medical practitioners. Neuroimaging is an essential tool for diagnosing autism spectrum disorders, a condition that is constantly impairing the ability of young children to develop, in terms of language and social communication (Bigler et al., 2007). Knowledge of the symptomatic presentation of autism including the nature in which the brain responds to language stimuli is vital in creating early interventions. Therefore, knowledge of research methods and techniques and their respective functions, which I have learnt through the comprehensive review of literature, has boosted my ability to investigate and diagnose autism, and categorize the specific disorders that make up autism. Failure and difficulty in treating autism has been linked with the delay in making accurate diagnoses. Interventions can be best implemented at an early age where the prospects of improvement are high (Minshew & Keller, 2010). New assessment paradigms and improved software and hardware support are fundamental to practice in the area of autism diagnosis and treatment. In general, through the review of literature, in the area of neuroimaging studies, I have gained a broad appreciation of the comparative studies involving the application of different methods of diagnosis. This will be vital in preventing misdiagnosis and providing adequate treatment for the initially misdiagnosed children (Minshew & Keller, 2010).
The complexity of the diagnosis of a cognitive or behavioral etiology of autism reflects the neurodevelopmental aspect of condition (Mody & Belliveau, 2012). Although they are yet to be ascertained, current mechanistic models that demonstrate the abnormal distribution of neural connectivity patterns give a reasonable account of the symptomatology of autism. Autism Spectrum Disorders express tremendous heterogeneity. Therefore, focusing on the creation of neurophenotypes that are well defined is critical for gaining knowledge of autism and guiding those with the Autism Spectrum Disorders by providing the targets for pharmacological and behavioral interventions.
Bigler E. et al. (2007) “Temporal Effects, Language Function, and Autism” Developmental Neuropsychology, 31(2): 217-238
Minshew N. & Keller, T. (2010) “The Nature of Brain Dysfunction in Autism” Current Opinion in Neurology, 23(2): 124-130
Mody, M. & Belliveau, J. (2012) “Language and Speech Impairments in Autism: Insights from Neuroimaging” North American Journal of Medicine and Science, 5(3): 157-162
Wing, I. (2004) “The Spectrum of Autistic Disorders” Hospital Medicine, 65: 542-545
Strategies For Evaluating EHR Adoption By The Organization
The organization will adopt a phased implementation of EHR. Phased implementation of EHR is the stepwise introduction of EHR functionality through a series of phases, each with its own analysis, training, and go-live schedule. In the implementation phase, the work of EHR activation begins. This is the true test of an organization’s preparation made in the pre-implementation phase, and of the general match of these accomplishment factors to the nature of its EHR implementation. The workflow redesign speaks to the relationship between human factors, how people work, and technology. Critical to successful implementation is the fit of staff and physicians workflow to that of the EHR functionality and usability design constrictions. If the EHR fits into clinician workflow then it is further likely to be acknowledged by the staffs. Redesign of business process is crucial for the technology to deliver its benefits. The purpose of the change plan was to digitize the operations of the organization. The plan aimed at establishing an IT agenda that would link the goals of the organization and its initiatives. It also set to improve internal capabilities and characteristics that will enhance the overall ability to effective in technology. The incorporation of EHR is intended to provide medical and non-medical staffs with adequate information. It also seeks to provide an interconnection of staffs with the organization and also linking them with other professionals from other institutions. Adoption of EHR is meant to improve personalized care to patients and improve the general health of the population. it is crucial for the organization to reflect on the efficacy of the technology in its operations. Constant evaluation and monitoring of the change process is essential. The organization will establish a monitoring and evaluation team that will be mandated with the process of assessing the effectiveness of the technology and the progress of the change process.
Assessment of the plan success
The effectiveness of EHR in increasing the efficiency of the organization will be assessed on the basis of its effect on the nine critical points identified during the implementation phase and the goals of the change plan. According to health collaboration and innovation center, the main purpose/function of EHR is to automate and streamline the clinician workflow. EHR is capable of producing/generating a complete of clinician-patient encounter in a healthcare set-up. This is one of the bases of supporting actions taken by clinicians. It offers an evidenced-based decision. EHR offers an effective was of maintaining health information of patients. It is and effective way of creating cohesion between many departments that are characteristics of many healthcare organizations. Due to the availability of health information data from all health care organizations, a healthcare provider can refer to the required test reports, thus avoiding repetition of expensive costs (Pradeep, Sinhar, Sunder et al, ). EHR are also know to accelerate research and also help build effective medical practices.
Clinical Workflow Tasks
Document patient information
Retrieve and store patient medical records
Process billing and claims
Medical treatment (triage)
Record patient history
Examine and assess patients
Develop treatment plans
Provide patient education
Order procedures (e.g., vaccinations, x-rays,) and lab tests
Clinical follow-up with patients
Source: (Jason Lee and Adele Shartzer)
The above clinical workflow tasks will be used to assess the effectiveness of EHR. EHR utilization reporting will be used to assess the effectiveness of the technology. The first step will involve evaluating the interfaces of different departments such as billing center, laboratory, hospital and the clearinghouse. The percentage of clinic visit documented in EHR, the percentages of laboratory results that are generated accurately, number of e-prescription sent to the pharmacy will be good indicators of the effect of EHR on critical points in the clinical workflow.
Other measures of the efficacy of the technology will be conducted. Some of the expected outcomes include:
- Amount of time that a client spend in the office
- Clinicians’ workload
- Efficiency among staffs i.e. reduced amount of time spent looking for charts, patients, fellow staffs and results.
- The attitude of staffs on the new technology
- Time taken to perform a particular task
- Time taken to execute a specific set of instructions
Effectiveness is the precision and totality with a user can achieve task goal. The organization will conduct risk analysis to identify the common human errors that will persist a t each point of the workflow. Failure modes and effects analysis (FMEA) will be used to conduct the risk analysis. The following measure will be used to assess the effectiveness of the technology in reducing human errors in the healthcare process:
- The number and rate of errors committed in each workflow point.
- The procedure/path used to complete a specific task.
- Severity of the errors
- The number of help sought by each employee
Measurement of ease of learning
The adoption of the technology and its effectiveness will highly depend on the learning capacity and pace of learning among staffs. The level of learning will be assessed using the amount of time by clinicians to achieve a level of specific competency after every six months.
Measures of outcome in this measurement include:
The time taken by clinicians and support staffs to achieve expert use of EHR
The amount of time used by clinicians and other users of EHR refereeing to the manual
The number of time the workers have accessed the help function of the device
Time taken by the staffs to use the devices compared to what an expert would use.
Assessment of user satisfaction
It is crucial to assess the impact of technology on the job satisfaction of employees. The satisfaction of the employees in using the technology will be assessed using a Likert-scale chart. The staffs will be required to state their level of satisfaction of different component of EHR and rate then on a scale of 1-10.
Information technology is effective in improving healthcare services. It offers an effective management tool to mange patients, stakeholders, managements and creditors of an organization. The increasing cost of healthcare services has necessitated healthcare organization to adopt measures that will increase their efficiency and reduce cost. One of the strategies that have been demonstrated to be effectual in improving efficiency is the integration of information technology. In efforts to increase its efficiency, this organization strategized a change plan. The change plan targeted at digitalizing the operations of the organization. The plan was devised from a need analysis that highlighted the need for information as the major concern. Information is key in service delivery considering the interconnectedness nature of operations within a healthcare organization. The change process is likely to be impeded by lack of resources. Other factors likely to affect the change process include perception of the employees toward the process, social characteristics of the employees and laws that govern safe use of technology in healthcare set-up and privacy of patients.
The plan involves the adoption of electronic health record system to manage patients. The plan will center on linking the overall goals of the organization to provide quality services with other goals and objectives. The plan will strive to provide medical and non-medical staffs with adequate information to base their decisions. The implementation of the plan will ensure there is an interconnection among staffs in different departments. The implementation phase will be phased out into pre and post implementation stages. The pre-implementation stages will involve selection of the hardware and software vendor, and training of staffs. The major process of the implementations process will be to align the technology with the workflow of the organization. All the key point of the workflow will be fitted with the technology. Staffs working in theses points will be trained. The first three months of the plan implementation will act as a training session. After those three months, the plan wi8ll be compressively rolled out. Continuous monitoring and evaluation strategies will be instituted to monitor the progress of the change plan.
Felicia Bowens. Health information technology: integration of clinical workflow into meaningful use of electronic health records. Perspective in health information management. 2010, Vol. 7, Issue 2966355; 4.
Pradeep K., Sunder G., Et al (2013). Electronic health record: Standards, coding system, frameworks, and infrastructures. John Wiley & Sons. New Jersey, USA.
Spector, B. (2010). Implementing organizational change: Theory into practice (2nd ed). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Prentice Hall.
Drug Misuse in Secondary Schools
Drug misuse has been a persistent concern for communities, parents, educational institutions and policy makers. The United Kingdom is among the many countries that continue to stage a determined war against drug misuse. Unfortunately, UK continues to record high rate of drug and alcohol misuses especially among minors. Survey conducted in secondary schools across UK indicated that pupils in years 7-11 i.e. 11 to 15 years are prone to drug misuses. The national health statistics NHS) information center indicates that the prevalence of drugs misuse among secondary children stood at 18% in 2010. In 2011, there was a slight drop in drug misuse prevalence rates at 17% (NHS, 2012). The slight decline in drug misuse prevalence among secondary school children is not a cause for relaxation. The 17% is an indicator that there remain a significant percentage of secondary children struggling with the vice. Drug misuse affects the health and well being of a child as well as affects their future.
Causes of Drug Misuse
Research indicates that there are several risk factors that leave the young people susceptible to drug misuse. Some of these factors include economic factors. Children born and raised in Poverty stricken areas have a higher risk of being exposed to drug abuse. The sense of economic deprivation and hardship drives children born, in poor families to engage in drug misuses. Poverty stricken neighborhood also suffer from a higher degree of social disintegration. The access to illicit drugs is with ease as drug peddlers use these poverty stricken regions as their hide outs. Psychological and behavioral factors can also contribute to drug misuse among secondary children. Secondary school children are at the peak of their adolescence hence an increasing desire to belong to a group. Problems such as rejection or alienation by peers can lead to drug misuse (Department for education, 2013). An adolescent that feels unwanted will turn to drugs for solace, and with habitual use, he will become an addict. Family factors can also lead to drug use among young people. Secondary pupils exposed to parents and care givers who misuse drugs will be driven by curiosity, to try the drug. Families experiencing problems such as conflict and communication breakdown will also push a child to drug misuse as he lacks a reliable model to ape. Children need supportive families and role models to guide them through the hurdles of life. Other factors such as exposure to sexual exploitation and abuse can also encourage a child to engage in drug misuse so as to escape from reality.
Sources of Drugs
Drugs that adolescents are exposed to are both legal and illegal. Legal drugs refer to substances that are lawfully permitted in the market. They include prescribed drugs, alcohol, inhalants and over the counter drugs. The fact that this category of drugs are legally allowed in the market means that young drug users can access them with ease. The drug users will use a pain killer for instance for fun rather that subdue pain. A drug user will also inhale glue or aerosols so as to enjoy the euphoric effects it has with its use. The second category of drugs is the illegal drugs that are not recognized by law. These drugs include marijuana, cocaine LSD, heroin, ecstasy etc. since these drugs are illegal young people access in the black market. Drug peddlers are used to make these drugs available for users (Sussman, & Ames, 2001).
Side effects of Drug Misuse
Drug misuse among secondary school children is a concern due to the high risk of drug dependence. Drug dependency is a status in which a drug user becomes addicted to a drug. Drug dependency among secondary school children means that the user needs a constant dose of the drug so as to function normally. The severity of drug dependency is seen in the fact that an individual suffers from severe withdrawal indications when he ceases use of the drug. Drug dependence sees a drug addict take higher doses of drugs as he gradually becomes tolerant to previous levels. Secondary school children engaging in drug abuse are also prone to academic failure. A child may abruptly lose interest in school activities.
A student who was a high flier in terms of performance begins to fail. Failure in school is attributed to lack of interest and lack of class concentration. Emotionally, drug abuse leads to personality changes in the user (NHS, 2011). A drug abuse begins to exhibit erratic mood swings, become highly irritable and demonstrates irresponsible behavior. In the school environment, a child abusing drugs will become unruly and may initiate fights with his peers. A student may also suffer from low self esteem that may interfere with his academic abilities. A teenager who abuses drugs may also exhibit general health deterioration as he neglects his health and welfare. A drug addict has poor judgment, and with a teenage drug addict, he may throw caution to the wind and engage in practice that puts his health at risk. Trying out a concoction of different drugs, for instance, can be lethal resulting to a need for urgent medical care.
Consequences of Drug Misuse
Research has also demonstrated that there are various social, cultural and economic consequences associated with drug abuse. Young people that abuse drugs have been found to be prone to engaging in offending behavior. According to a 1998 British crime survey, 50% of persons under the age of 20 had used some kind of illegal drug. The studies also revealed that most young offender held in prison and rehabilitation centers committed offense while under the influence of an illegal substance. There is increasing evidence of relations between substance abuse of criminal offences. When intoxicated, these young addicts are unaware of the severity of the atrocities they are committing. It is only after the drug effects have worn off that they realize the severity of their actions (Gill, & Whalley, 2012). Drug misuse thus heightens societal breakdown due to increased deviant behavior among children. From an economic perspective, the habit of drug abuse causes economic strains as the adolescent seeks for ways to satisfy his craving. Illicit drugs are generally costly, and a user needs large sums of money. Secondary school children have a tendency to engage in crime so as to find money to purchase these drugs. The children may also steal valuable from their homes so as to sell off and have some money to purchase drugs (Anonymous, 2011). Increased drug use has also increased the misconstrued perception that drug use and committing offense are exciting. Young drug users have turned illicit substances as elements of heightening excitement in their lives. Young people may thus turn to drug abuse as an alternative fun activity compared to engaging in health activities and games.
The high rate of drug use among children should be a concern for all members of the society. In UK, the use of marijuana and alcohol among high school students is high. Drug use among high school children puts a whole generation at risk. Children are tomorrow’s future and their exposure to vices such as drug abuse destroys their future. The social fabric is also destroyed as the adolescents engage in delinquent behavior. It is the responsibility of adults to model children to become responsible individuals in society. Young people already into drug abuse must be put through rehabilitation programs that will enable them clean up and permanently stop the habit.
Anonymous, (2011). Teens: alcohol and other drugs. American Academy of child & adolescent psychiatry. Vol. 3
Department for education, (2013). Drug and alcohol misuse. Retrieved from http://www.education.gov.uk/schools/pupilsupport/pastoralcare/health/drug
Gill, V. & Whalley, R. (2012). Smoking, drinking and drug use among young people in England. National foundation for educational research.
NHS, (2011). Statistics on drug misuse: England 2011 The information center
NHS, (2012). Substance misuse among young people 2011-2012. National treatment agency for substance misuse
Sussman, S. & Ames, S. (2001). The social psychology of drug abuse. Open University press
The Chelsea Flower Show
The management of visitors experience is vital to the success of a tourist attraction. This report evaluates the visitor experience at the Chelsea Flower Show. The report also provides recommendation in how the management of this event can enhance visitors’ experience. Visitor experience is a shared outcome as it is influenced by multiple activities and component of the tourism industry.
This report reveals that visitor experience evolves through three broad stages. The first stage is the pre-visit stage. This stage plays a significant role in influencing visitors’ expectation. This stage is mainly affected by the quality and content of the attraction’s communication initiatives. The second stage is known as the visit stage. At this stage, the tourist gets an opportunity to interact with the various components of the tour. These include; transportation, accommodation, food and beverage and the attraction. The visitor’s experience is shaped by the difference between the visitor’s expectation and the actual encounters of the clients. When actual encounter meet or exceed expectations, the visitor develops a positive experience. The third stage is known as the post-visit stage. At this stage, the client experiences are influenced through memories, photographs and souvenirs.
The report reveals that the Chelsea Flower Show provides positive experiences in all these stages. However, the visit experience can be enhanced by extending the duration of the event and adding the number of activities within the event. The event’s management can also enhance the post-visit experience through follow-up communication.
Table of Content
1.1 Background Information
The Chelsea Flow Show is an annual five day event that takes place at the Royal Hospital Chelsea grounds, London. The event is also referred to as the Great Spring Show. The event is usually held in the month of May. The Chelsea Flower Show gives visitors an opportunity to sample various gardens designs. Visitors get to watch emerging trend in gardening and discover new plant species. This event has become one of the most popular flower shows in the world, attracting over 150,000 visitors (Visit London, 2013). The show has also received a lot of publicity and is covered by the national broadcaster, BBC. The Chelsea Flower Show is organized by Royal Horticultural Society. Visitors are required to purchase advance tickets in order to participate in the event.
2.0 Visitor Experience
Visitor experience can be described as the outcome that a visitor gets from the interaction with a recreational setting. Visitor experience evolves at different stages of the visitation process; from the pre-visit stage, through the on-site activities and to the post visit stages. Thus, visitor experience is created through the trade-off between the visitors’ expectations and the perception of services that they get during the visitation. Thus, tourist attraction need to manage the tourist expectations, as well as, the activities that they encounter during the visitation in order to enhance the experience of visitors. They also need to manage all stages of service consumption in order to deliver superior experiences to the visitors.
2.1 Pre-Visit Stage
Attractions begin to shape the visitors experiences during the pre-visit stage. This stage encompasses all the activities that take place before the visitor arrives at the site of the event. Communication is one of the vital activities within the pre-visit stage. This refers to ways in which the event’s management reaches potential visitors. Different attractions use different strategies to communicate to potential visitors. The Chelsea Flower Show (CFS) communicates to potential visitors through the Royal Horticultural Society (RHS) website, broadcast media and other broadcasting channel. In its website, CFS management informs potential visitors about the event and gives promises concerning what the visitors should expect from the event. Communication is essential in determining the visitors’ expectations. Apart from the RHS website, potential visitor can get information about the events from other websites such as visitlondon.com.
RHS website also provides visitors with sufficient information concerning how they can purchase the events tickets. The RHS website has provided an online platform for purchasing tickets. This enhances visitors’ convenience thus shaping their experiences. Visitors can also get information, on how to get to the Chelsea Flower Show and where to reside during the show, from the visitlondon.com website. Transport and accommodation are essential components of the tourism industry. Apart from facilitating the consumption of tourism attraction, transport and accommodation facilities shape the experiences of the visitors. Providing visitors with sufficient information, on how the can access transport and accommodation facilities, has a significant impact on the experiences of visitors.
2.2 Visit Stage
At this stage, visitors’ expectations have already been shaped by the information provided in the pre-visit stage. Visitors’ experiences are determined by the ability of the activities that take place in visit stage to match the expectations of the visitor. The visit stage encompasses four essential components; transportation, accommodation, food and beverage services and attraction.
The transport and recreation industries have an intricate relationship (Reigner, Kiser, Lawson and Manning, 2012). Visitors need an efficient transport system in order to access the recreational sites. The availability and the quality of the transport network have a significant impact on the value of the recreation site. The Chelsea Flow Show venue is located in London. This makes the event easily accessible by all visitors. International visitors can easily access the city through its international airports. The city is served by a number of airports including Gatwick, Stansted and Heathrow. Once the visitors are in London, they can access the CFS venue through various transportation networks. Visitors may use local trains, buses, cable cars and taxi to arrive at the venue or move around the city. Cycling racks can also be found at the Burton’s court, Cadogan Gardens, Bourne Street, Royal Avenue. The elaborate transport network within the city has a significant impact on visitors’ experience. The transport systems provide visitors with options, safety and convenience thus boosting their experiences.
The availability and quality of accommodation services also has a significant impact on visitors’ experiences (Fager & Sanche, 2010). The Chelsea Flower Show attracts a significant number of international visitors. These visitors need a place to stay during the event. Thus, accommodation services are vital. London is home to hundreds of first class accommodation facilities. Visitors can get accommodation at the airport and city hotels. There are also numerous accommodation facilities near the event venues. The availability of an efficient transport network makes it convenient for visitors to stay in hotels that are situated in other areas within the city. The cost of accommodation services is also a significant determinant of visitors’ experiences. Visitors can find hotels that offer different rates within the city. Thus, it is possible to find cheap accommodation services.
2.2.3 Food and Beverage Services
Food and Beverage Services are also essential determinant of visitors’ satisfaction any event (Robinson & Clifford, 2007). Food and beverage services also account for a significant portion of revenues that a given events brings to a destination. The Chelsea Flower Show attracts a number of mobile restaurant operators. However, RHS has to limit the number of food operators due to the size of the venue. The Royal Hospital Chelsea ground is only 11 acres big. Thus, RHS cannot license a large number of food operate into the venue. Consequently, there are congestions in the food outlets. Some visitors move out of the events venue in such as food and beverage services.
Attraction refers to the item that has brought the visitor to the destination. In this case, the Chelsea flow show is the attraction. Visitors come to this event with high expectation. The visitors’ experiences are shaped by the ability of the activities that take place within the event to meet the expectation of the visitors. Visitors come to the event with the expectation of seeing recent gardening trends. The Chelsea Flower Show does not disappoint in terms of fulfilling this expectation. The events attract exhibitors from different parts of the world, who introduce diverse gardening designs into the show. The 2013 edition of the flower events attracted 500 exhibitors and encompassed 150 exhibits including 19 small gardens and 15 large gardens (BBC, 2013). The exhibits also included over 100 gnomes, which were decorated by renowned personalities.
Visitors’ experiences at the attraction are also shaped by the visiting motivations of the tourists (Hennes, 2002). Tourists’ visits are motivated by a diversity of factors. These motivational factors may include; business, relaxation, learning, adventure and many others. Many tourists who visit the Chelsea Flower Show are motivated by the need to learn about the various gardening designs and flower species. This is a significant expectation, and thus, the event must meet this expectation in order to deliver a positive experience. The Chelsea Flower Show is also effective at fulfilling this expectation. The event gives visitors an opportunity to observe gardening trends and learn about them. Visitors are able to acquire unique learning experiences.
Another factor that affects visitors’ experiences within the attraction site is the general management of the event (Engelbrecht, 2011). Visitors want to be in an attraction that is highly organized and safe. Activities should be choreographed appropriately. It should also be easy for visitors to find assistance and move from one point to another. The Chelsea flower event did not score highly in this area. Congestion is a major challenge during this event. The management has to find ways of fitting thousands of visitors in the 11 acre piece of land. The perception of congestion has a negative effect on experiences of visitors (Doorne, 2009). Visitor crowding has a negative impact on the visitors. Once the social capacity of the venue is exceeding, visitors may suffer from irritation, traffic problems and noise. It may also hinder visitor experiences by preventing taking of photographs and close interaction between the visitors and exhibitors.
Visitor’s experience at the attraction site is also affected by the variety of activities within the sites (Engelbrecht, 2011). Customers love options. They want to visit an attraction that provides an assortment of activities. Visitors can participate in a number of activities during the Chelsea flower show. These activities include; walking trail, photographing and video shooting, finding gardens and others.
2.3 Post-Visit Stage
Post-visit stage takes place after the visitor has left the destination. Visitors love to remember their experiences within an attraction site through photos, videos and souvenirs. Thus, tourist attraction should provide visitors the opportunity to obtain souvenirs and other post-consumption items. The garden provides grounds for people to take photographs and videos within the park. Professional photographers are also found within the garden thus enabling visitors to access photo services.
Post visit experience is also managed through follow-up communication (Fager E. & Sanche, 2010). Some tourist attraction sites and business maintain communication with their clients after the completion of the clients’ visits. This enhances clients’ perception about the attraction and hence the experiences of the client. Establishments that focus on the post visit experiences are able to promote return visits and word –of-mouth marketing.
Visitor experience is a shared outcome. Thus, the task of improving visitors experience at the CFS will require the events management team to partner with other stakeholders. These stakeholders include; transport providers, accommodation facilities, retail and other businesses within the city, food outlets and many others. However, the event management can make its own initiative for enhancing visitors’ experience. Congestion is among of the gravest issues that the events’ management needs to address. Congestion is mainly caused by the limited capacity of the Royal Hospital Chelsea grounds. The ground is only 11 acres big. The limited capacity of the venue not only affects visitor experience but also reduces the amount of revenues raised during the event. This is because the event’s managed are often compelled to sell a limited number of tickets in order to avoid exceeding the capacity of the venue. Visitors can only purchase tickets in advance. This capacity problem locks out a significant number of visitors.
The Chelsea Flower Show management can address this issue by extending the duration of the event. Chelsea Flower Show is a five day occasion that is organized in the month of May. The first two days of the events are exclusive to Royal Horticultural Society members. This leaves only three days for public visitors. The organizers of this show should consider extending the duration of the show to 8 days. This will give members of the public six days to attend the event. Extending the duration of the event will reduce overcrowding as the number of visitation will be spread across the six days rather than three days. The organizers should establish a system that ensures that the number of visitors in each day does not exceed a given figure. Extending the number of days will also enable the event organizers to sell additional number of tickets thus enhancing revenues.
The event organizers should also find additional activities and include them in the event. The Chelsea Flower Show provides visitors with an assortment of activities. These recreational activities include; gardens, awards ceremonies, pavilions, photos and video shooting. However, organizers can also introduce other events that enhance bonding. Providing additional activities will help the event to attract additional visitors to the event. It will also increase the length of stay of visitors thus resulting in increased revenues. There is also a need to incorporate activities that provide a sense of uniqueness. Visitors want to have unique experiences when they visit tourism destination (Booth, Cessford, McCool & Espiner, 2011). The show could also show case the British culture through various avenues such as food and beverage services. The activities should also provide visitors with a sense of challenge.
The Chelsea Flower Show should consider enhancing the visitors’ post-visit experiences by establishing follow-up communication. The organizing team should invest in a custom relationship system that enables them to store visitor information. This information will help the organizers to identify valuable clients and establish close relationships with them. The RHS can notify the customers about other events that the organization holds in different cities across the country. Customer relationship management has become a vital activity in the tourism industry (Drushinin & Kallunki, 2012). Tourism players use customer relationship management activities to promote customer loyalty, return purchase and word-of-mouth marketing.
BBC (2013). Chelsea Flower Show visited by the Queen. May 23, 2013. http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/uk-22600786
Booth K. Cessford G. McCool S. & Espiner S. (2013). Exploring Visitor Experiences on the Milford Track. May 23, 2013. http://www.doc.govt.nz/Documents/science-and-technical/sfc313entire.pdf
Doorne S. (2009). Visitor Experience at the Waitomo Glowworm Cave. May 23, 2013. http://www.doc.govt.nz/documents/science-and-technical/sfc095.pdf\
Drushinin J. & Kallunki S. M. (2012). Customer Relationship Management in a Tourism Company. May 23, 2013. https://publications.theseus.fi/bitstream/handle/10024/41136/Drushinin_Janita_Kallunki_Suvi.pdf?sequence=1
Engelbrecht W. (2011). Critical Success Factors for Managing Visitor Experience at the Kruger National Park. May 23, 2013. http://www.academia.edu/2440334/
Fager E. & Sanche A. (2010). Setting the State for Visitors Experiences in Canada. The George Wright forum. 27 (2): 180- 190
Hennes T. (2002). Rethinking the Visitor Experience. May 23, 2013. http://www.thincdesign.com/pubarts/CuratorHennesDewey.pdf
Reigner N. Kiser B. Lawson S. and Manning R. (2012). Using Transportation to Manage Recreation Carrying Capacity. The George Wright Forum. 29 (3): 322- 337
Robinson R. & Clifford C. (2007). Augmenting the Authenticity at Special Events through Foodservice Experience. International Journal of Event Management. 3 (2)
Visit London (2013). RHS Chelsea Flower Show 2013. May 23, 2013. http://www.visitlondon.com/things-to-do/event/18219357-rhs-chelsea-flower-show-2013
Effect of Unethical Behavior Article Analysis
Accounting is a practice that is put in place in an organization to ensure that resources of such an organization are managed in an integral manner; therefore, there is no room for any unethical practices. Unethical practices and behaviors in accounting not only ruin the reputation of such an organization, but it also discourages the owners and other stakeholders. Perhaps, there are various causes of unethical practices and behavior in accounting. This paper, therefore, observes various situations that may lead to unethical practices and behavior in accounting.
There are multiple reasons that can make individuals act unethically during the preparation of financial information. These can be as quite simple as self-interest greed to complex situations such as corporate pressure and acts of ignorance.
An accountant may illegally acquire fund from an organization through the act of stealing and fraud. This situation happens when an individual have poor accounting ethics, and will, therefore, satisfy his/her financial needs by embezzling an organization’s finances. Pressure from powerful corporate individuals such as the management and other powerful personnel may make an otherwise morally upright accountant perform malicious acts in the fear of losing his/her job. Acts of ignorance such as failing to follow accounting rules or even omission amount to unethical practice in accounting.
Many laws have been enacted to prevent corporate accounting malpractices, and the Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002 on Financial Statements is one such laws. The Sarbanes-Oxley Act is a key element in the business world since it sets remarkable standards for corporate accountability, and defines penalties for any act of wrong doing. It specifies how the cooperate executives and leaders must interact with the corporate auditors and also with each other. This act requires an internal control report to be included in all financial reports in order to show that the financial data of the company is accurate and adequate control measures have been put in place to safeguard the financial data of an organization. The Sarbanes-Oxley Act, therefore, protects investors through improved accuracy and reliability of disclosures of a corporate.
Unethical practices and behaviors are disillusioning acts in the corporate world since they destroy investors’ efforts. Situations such as self-interest greed, corporate pressure and acts of ignorance are the common unethical practices and behaviors in the corporate world. However, such practices may be drastically reduced by adopting laws such as those indicated by the Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002.
Question: Can situations that lead to unethical practices and behavior in accounting be prevented?
Chron, (2013). Causes of Ethical Lapses in Accounting. Retrieved From, http://smallbusiness.chron.com/causes-ethical-lapses-accounting-24559.html On May 27, 2013.
The Purpose of the Study
There are various objectives that help in specifying the purpose of the study. One of the most notable objectives of the study pertains to the establishment of how different methods of teaching mathematics impact the framework for self-efficacy among pre-service teachers. In essence, this specifically applies to the mathematics teaching staff at the elementary level. Consequently, the analysis will help in identifying the most effective techniques for teaching mathematics.
The degree of self-efficacy among all teachers is massively influential towards their productivity (Lee, 2003). An excellent degree of self-efficacy enhances the teacher’s success in the classroom. In contrast, low standards of self-efficacy can significantly hamper the teacher’s ability to deliver at the elementary level (Little, 2003). This accentuates the significance of assessing the different self-efficacy beliefs among pre-service mathematics educators. The second purpose narrows down on the enhancement of content delivery among mathematics teachers at the elementary level. The elementary level is a highly sensitive stage with regard to the cognitive development framework of students (Wakefield, 2001). The young learners develop essential educational skills at the elementary level.
The exposure provided at this level strongly influences the student’s future performance in later stages of his or her academic life. As a highly sensitive subject, mathematics is inherently connected to other disciplines. This underlines the significance of developing the relevant content for teaching mathematics course.
Despite the influential role of content in the performance of different students, most pre-service teachers have insufficient frameworks for streamlining the entire structure of mathematics course (Stevens, 2004). This has significantly hampered the development of adequate skills in mathematics among learners. Consequently, this study will be massively beneficial in terms of addressing this gap. Adequate strategies for designing content delivery for mathematics teachers at the elementary level will be developed. Through such strategies, the mathematics teachers at the elementary level can align the course content to suit the needs of students. The study also focuses on the various ways in which the self-efficacy beliefs can be enhanced. The enhancement of self-efficacy beliefs among mathematics teachers at the elementary level is an essential aspect of enhancing the quality of teaching mathematics (Walker, 2003).
Another pertinent objective of this study is to enhance overall standards of teaching mathematics at the elementary level. This will directly impact national standards of performance in mathematics. As the world moves rapidly towards the science and technology age, mathematics is a massive contributor towards intelligence and problem solving skills. Such dynamics will form the framework of analysis in this study. The purpose of this study is also to identify the different stumbling blocks that have hampered the ability of mathematics teachers at the elementary level to deliver. This specifically focuses on the pre-service teachers (Moran, 2007). The mitigation of such hindrances is highly beneficial towards the development of the most effective teaching strategies.
Additionally, it is also essential to examine the different tactics used by mathematics teachers at the elementary level to overcome the self-efficacy barriers. While some strategies are effective, others are not. Consequently, the study will be massively beneficial in the mitigation of such barriers. The study also seeks to assess the findings generated by other researchers on this issue (Wilkins, 2008). The framework for literature review will be crucial in terms of identifying the various gaps in current research as directly relates to self-efficacy among mathematics teachers at the elementary level.
Background of the Study
The issue of self-efficacy among mathematics teachers at the elementary level has been investigated extensively by numerous researchers. In view of such an aspect, different researchers have focused on numerous aspects as directly relates to the topic (Sawyer, 2004). For instance, some researchers have sought to demystify the ramifications of different teaching methods on self-efficacy. In essence, the issue of self-efficacy in teaching mathematics is massively diverse. This is largely because of the numerous dimensions characterizing the frameworks for teaching mathematics at the elementary level. Among the most notable strategy employed in teaching mathematics involves group work.
While teaching mathematics at the elementary level, teachers seek to address different topics using the group work approach (Smith, 2007). Most teachers perceive group work as a pertinent platform for boosting their respective standards of self-efficacy. Through the use of group work, the students practice collectively on how to solve different mathematical problems. This method has significantly streamlined the framework for self-efficacy among mathematics educators at the elementary level. Instructional platforms are also essential aspects of self-efficacy (McDougall, 2004). The degree of self-efficacy among educators can be determined by the instructional approach used. For instance, the instructional framework should not encompass complexities. The alleviation of such complications enhances the entire learning process.
The learning environment has also been identified as a pertinent aspect which influences the framework for self-efficacy among educators for mathematics. It is always crucial for the learning environment to maximize the levels of concentration among students. For instance, some learning activities can significantly boost the capacity of students to concentrate in the different mathematics classes.
It is fundamentally complex to attain efficiency in teaching mathematics if the learning environment is not appropriate (Chambers, 2008). This aspect has been emphasized extensively by numerous researchers. It is this as essential dimension for mathematics teachers at the elementary level. Different educators have experimented on different teaching methods in order to streamline the framework for self-efficacy. This explains the notable levels of disparities in the degrees of self-efficacy for mathematics teachers at the elementary level. In order to actualize the most appropriate teaching method, the pre-service teacher should have the right attitude. In the absence of the right attitude, it is significantly challenging for the teacher to implement the right teaching method.
Attitudes and beliefs are extremely pertinent towards the outcome of an educational intervention mechanism (Lee, 2010). With regard to the beliefs of pre-service teachers, they should always be confident while teaching mathematics. Confidence creates consistency in content delivery and thus streamlines the teaching outcome. In contrast, minimal confidence can significantly diminish the framework for the entire teaching outcome. In addition to confidence, self esteem can substantially affect the self-efficacy beliefs of teachers. High standards of self esteem are essential for any pre-service mathematics teachers to enhance the teaching outcome for any mathematics course. Self-efficacy is also strongly associated with the qualifications for the pre-service teachers (Cowen, 2006).
Across the United States, a large percentage of mathematics teachers are characterized by inadequate certification. The multiplier effect of this aspect is notable in the learning outcomes for mathematics in most elementary schools (Bandura, 1997). It is thus massively crucial for the pre-service teachers to be provided with appropriate training in preparation for teaching mathematics.
Bandura, A. (1997). Self-efficacy: The exercise of control, Worth Publishers
Chambers, P. (2008). Teaching mathematics, Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications
Cowen, P. (2006). Teaching mathematics, Routledge
Lee, D. (2003). A synthesis of empirical research on teaching mathematics, Elementary School Journal, 103(1)
Lee, T. (2010). Teaching mathematics creatively, New York, NY: Taylor & Francis
Little, M. E. (2003). Successfully teaching mathematics, Educational Forum, 67(3)
McDougall, D. (2004). PRIME School Mathematics Improvement, Thomson, Nelson
Moran, M. (2007). The differential antecedents of self-efficacy beliefs, Teaching and Teacher Education, 23, 944-956
Sawyer, B.E. (2004). Primary-grade teachers’ self-efficacy beliefs, The Elementary School Journal, 104(4)
Smith, S. (2007). A longitudinal study of elementary pre-service teachers, School Science and Mathematics, 107(8)
Stevens, T. (2004).Role of mathematics self-efficacy, Journal of Education Research, 97(4)
Wakefield, A. P. (2001). Teaching young children to think about math. Principal, 80(5), 26-29
Walker, R. (2003). The relationship among self-concept and self-efficacy, Journal of Educational Psychology, 95(3)
Wilkins, M. (2008). The relationship among elementary teachers’ content knowledge, Journal of Math Teacher Education, 11
Physician Assisted Suicide
Evidence shows that the concept of physician assisted suicide is something that is developing concern thus creating troubles to the lawmakers in the healthcare setting. According to several studies that have been carried on human life, a good number of people want a dignity life starting from birth until their death. Humans in the world have been given freedom by God to choose what they want and what they don’t want. It is in this process they tend to make relevance choices about their life, which in some, instances may be difficult to encounter. It is clear that a person in respect to the constitution has the right to decide on whether he wants or he does not want to live.
Physician assisted suicide has become the topic of the day in most parts of the world. There are those people who disagree with it and provide good reasons for their stand, and there are those people who agree with it, and for their stand they provide good reasons for the same. Based on the research that I have conducted, most people would disagree with me, but the stand I have decided to take is for physician assisted suicide. I believe and think that PAS should be legal in all parts of the country. Doctors and many people think that physician assisted suicide is morally wrong, and by all means it should not be practiced at any expense. People who have lived a dignity life should also die in a dignity manner other than suffering for their illness and they will just die. It is the right thing that should be practices, but proper measures should be developed so as not to misuse the condition. I think if the patient is suffering and left in pain plus has little to do about his life should be allowed to take physician assisted suicide. Although there are those valid arguments that think that assisted suicide should not be legal, I believe the practice should be legal and monitored on how it is offered to those in critical conditions.
The issue of (PAS) is something vital in the current setting. We should first understand the concept behind PAS and who qualifies to get it so that it does not affect the cultural values of the society. Physician assisted suicide is the condition under which a patient who is in the pain condition is assisted to end his or her life so that aspect of suffering stops affecting the person. Most people would disagree with me that helping a person terminate his life is morally wrong, but it is the ideal thing that a person who has lived a dignity life should do. There is the argument that when legalized, PAS will be abused by people and no serious measure will be taken too proper actions are arrived at when dealing with patients who are seriously ill. There are some valid arguments that hold clear reasons as to why PAS should not be legalized, but as per my thoughts, I have done a research and developed sound reasons why the aspect should be legalized. In order to ensure that proper measures are met, health care industry will be required to ensure that the practice is not abused or used for personal benefit, but it’s used in accordance to the law, (Seale, 2009).
There are some good reasons why the PAS should be abolished and banned in the nation. The reason why the approach should be monitored is their study shows people are taking advantage of PAS for their own benefit. I think healthcare industry should monitor the situation and watch who is supposed to get services simply because more people who are unable to take care of their patients even if the condition is not serious they will request for physician assisted suicide which will violate healthcare practices. A place like Oregon state has legalized the practice of PAS, but before the person is granted the service, there are some steps that are followed so as to validate whether the request is genuine or not. The reason why most people are not for the practice is that they think if you are sick and request for PAS you are given direct. This is not the case there are some rules and regulations that guide the healthcare industry before PAS services are granted to the patient. In order to get PAS, you have to be terminally ill for a time period not less than 6 months to live. People should understand that one is required to request for PAS orally not less than two times before services are granted, and the patient has to wait for a period not less than 15 days before the second request about PAS is made. It is during this period the physician evaluates whether you are suffering from any psychological illness and if not you are free to get a go ahead from a psychologist. The patient then gets a legal document which you sign plus two other witnesses indicating that you have requested for the PAS services, (Kleespies, 2010).
After the patient checks out with the psychologists, the physician then decides on whether to draft a prescription or not for the PAS to be carried. It is clear that will all these steps and requirements a person who is not in need of PAS cannot get services that he or she does not require. This is clear that PAS cannot be abused unless the right procedure has not been followed by those offering services. Although there instances where some patients may give up, I don’t think this would be something to worry simply because those who qualify for PAS services are categorized and are in the verge of dying. There are instances where patients can recover but study shows that the percentage is very little and that it is not the wish of people who have lived a dignity life to suffer for more than six months with the hopes that they are going to recover. The bracket of six months of suffering is a good period to grant PAS services simply because chances of that particular patient to recover are minimal or zero thus instead of feeling pain one can be assisted to die in a peaceful manner, (Fass & Fass, 2011).
People only have fear about legalizing PAS but according to study, those who have requested for PAS have legitimate reasons on why they are doing so. This is the main reason why the situation has never been abused for all laws have to be followed, and appropriate procedure followed making it difficult for instances of abusing it rather the right people are granted. If a person is suffering and at the end of the situation he or she will die, I don’t think there exist any reasons that should prevent that person from getting PAS. Granting such a patient with PAS services is a way of reducing the level of pain that the patient will encounter before his death occurs. In such a situation, the physician should grant the patient with PAS so as to help the patient die with having much pain. It is true that people want to die with dignity thus instead of letting someone suffer it would be advisable to grant PAS when that person is still in the right condition other than letting the person suffer and die with a lot of pain. It is not right for patients to suffer and go for months suffering and die at the end. I think that people deserve a good life which means that even their death should be arrived when they are mentally competent. They are supposed to take care of themselves even if they are sick and when a time reaches patients no longer afford to take care of them, PAS should be granted if they make a request. It is wrong to let someone undergo pains and that are why I think PAS should be legalized and proper measures put in place on how to monitor the situation, (Seale, 2009).
History of PAS
PAS was first legalized in some parts of the country in 1906 but was turned down because most people did not like the idea. In 1992, California developed a motion on legalizing the thing, but the proposal went several debates, which ruled out that the state was not for the proposal. It was in 1994 when Oregon developed the proposal, and it was legalized which was known as the Death with Dignity Act. The idea of PAS has developed a lot of debate on whether to legalize it to a point the US Supreme Court in 1997 gave a ruling that PAS had no constitutional right and that the issue has been left to the states to decide. Oregon state was in the move to legalize the PAS even before the supreme court gave a ruling on what states are supposed to do in relation to matters of PAS. The first instance of PAS was with a woman in her 80s who was suffering from a painful breast cancer. She requested for PAS, but the doctor taking care of her did not agree until when her husband decided to get assistance from a different physician who agreed for a PAS after examining the patient. The physician who examined her realized that she was extremely ill, and granted PAS. Based on the physician’s argument, it is clear that no sign of PAS abuse it possible because proper steps must be followed and adhered at all times, (Bostrom, 2011).
Evidence shows that Washington, Montana, and Oregon are the only three states that have legalized the issue of PAS. Although most doctors from other states practice PAS, it is illegal for them to practice because it is considered to be morally wrong. There some instances where these doctors get away with the services but when they are caught the law prosecutes them for the mistakes they commit. In Michigan, some doctors were caught in the process of prescribing a lethal dose for their patients and there after they were arrested and prosecuted for the issue. The states that have legalized the issue of PAS has not gone smooth simply because most people argue about the issue and want the entire thing changed but evidence shows that there is no sign of making any changes rather the practice is there to remain and stay. According to the supreme court of US, there is no constitutional right that gives permission for PAS and what the court has ruled is that the federal law is responsible for allowing or not allowing PAS depending on the states moral issues, (Boomsma & Price, 2011).
Supreme Court was clear and provided an open forum for the states to decide on what to take. In my view, I believe that the issue of PAS should be legalized but with some rules and regulations so as to monitor how services are offered and stop the abuse of PAS by doctors and patients at the same time. The ruling that was made by the court was fair simply because it gives these states the freedom to take a stand. Evidence shows that even in those states where PAS is legal, some doctors do not give their patients PAS unless they seek assistance from a different doctor. There are some instances where doctors have given their patients PAS only to find them in a problem, and that is why most doctors do not want anything that partains to granting PAS to patients, (Robinson, 2010).
Most doctors who consider the issue of PAS always think about ethical issues that are connected with the services they give patients. It is with no doubt that doctors always take a hypocritical oath about their services and swore that they have a mandate to help patients and not to hurt them. There are those groups of doctors who see PAS as a way of hurting the patient and not helping them die a death that has no pain. I believe helping someone die because he, or she is in much pain is not hurting them and that is why my stand is that PAS should be legalized but left to the patients to make their decision. The issue of PAS should not be forced to anyone simply because it is a form of help whereby someone is voluntarily allowed to decide. When a patient is suffering and has a lot of pain that is disturbing the person, the doctor should have the freedom to assist the patient in any way. If the only suitable way is by PAS, then the doctor should give it to the patient without any fear or worry, (Scoccia, 2010).
We should understand that legalizing PAS is not increasing what people call doctors death, but it will just be a way of assisting patients who are suffering from more pain and at the end they will eventually die. In my opinion, I think that it is appropriate to legalize PAS so as to assist patients who are willing to die in a dignity manner instead of watching them struggle with pain before ending their life.
Boomsma, D., & Price, J. (2011). Western Suttee. National Review, 63(19), 28-30.
Bostrom, B. A. (2011). Gary Blick v. Division of Criminal Justice. Issues in Law & Medicine, 27(1), 73-77.
Fass, J., & Fass, A. (2011). Physician-assisted suicide: Ongoing challenges for pharmacists. American Journal of Health-System Pharmacy, 68(9), 846-849. Doi:10.2146/ajhp100333
Kleespies, P. M. (2010). Psychological and Ethical Considerations Concerning the Debreather and Assisted Suicide: A Commentary on Ogden. Death Studies, 34(4), 318-324.
Robinson, J. (2010). Baxter and the Return of Physician-Assisted Suicide. Hastings Center Report, 40(6), 15-17
Scoccia, D. (2010). Physician-Assisted Suicide, Disability, and Paternalism. Social Theory & Practice, 36(3), 479-498
Seale, C. C. (2009). Legalisation of euthanasia or physician-assisted suicide: survey of doctors' attitudes. Palliative Medicine, 23(3), 205-212.