Items filtered by date: December 2013
Cultural diversity serves as an essential element of global business. The cultural frameworks developed by an organization can have extensive implications on its effectiveness in the global markets. In essence, it is always crucial for any business organization to assess the different cultural values and attributes of its target markets. This caters for the development of a strategy that is sensitive to cultural diversity. Aspects such as ethics, religious values, and traditional perspectives are pertinent dynamics with regard to the cultural strategy of any business at the international level. For this essay, the different cultural considerations for Ferrer and Deborah’s furniture organization will be put into perspective.
Cultural Considerations for the Strategy
During the formulation of the global marketing strategy for Ferrer and Deborah’s firm, there are numerous cultural considerations. Firstly, the cultural values of the different target markets must be put into perceptive. Across the globe, different cultures are characterized by distinctive values. These values affect their daily activities including their preferences and consumption behaviors. Some cultures are notable for extensive spending while others refrain from such behavior. These cultural dynamics are massively essential in the development of the company’s strategy for entry into global markets. The next cultural consideration pertains to ethics (Trompenaars, 2004). The framework for ethics is highly variable in most cultures. While some cultures have strict ethical codes, other societies are less mindful about morals. Such disparities must be factored in the marketing strategy for the company as it seeks to venture into global markets (McDaniel, 2008). For instance, the company must maintain exceptional ethical standards in Western Europe.
Another cultural consideration concerns inclusion and social values. These values have extensive effects on the spending habits of different societies. Additionally, cultural values affect the acceptability of products in different market. These aspects accentuate the significance of cultural considerations in the formulation of a global marketing strategy.
Impact on Current Strategy
The different cultural considerations will not have negative implications on the firm’s current strategy for marketing. In essence, the different cultural considerations will magnificently enhance the current strategy. Based on the current marketing blueprint, adequate emphasis has not been placed on the any cultural outlook. Consequently, the integration of the different cultural perspectives will strongly enhance the efficiency of the marketing plan (Walton, 2002). Additionally, the framework for cultural considerations will streamline the company’s approach to different markets on the global front. Such an approach will significantly enhance the organization’s penetration into international markets.
Changing the Approach
The cultural considerations will greatly change the approach to marketing strategy. This is because of the sensitivity of cultural dynamics with regard to the acceptability of a new brand in the global markets. Adequate resources and time must be directed towards the integration of cultural perspectives into the entire marketing strategy. In the absence of such strategic tactics, it will be considerably complex to attain the different goals of the company’s global venture.
Cultural diversity is an outstanding aspect of global markets in any business. As the company embarks on a venture to establish itself in global markets, cultural perspectives must be incorporated into the strategy. Among the most notable cultural considerations is ethics. A company’s framework for ethics should be based on an elaborate assessment of the ethical values of different cultures. For instance, some cultures are highly sensitive to ethics.
McDaniel, C. D. (2008). The future of business: the Essentials, Mason, OH: Cengage Learning
Trompenaars, F. (2004). Business across cultures, Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons
Walton, P. (2002). International business, Mason, OH: Cengage Learning
I was able to remember 7 words from the first word list and 4 words from the second word list. Most of the words that I was able to remember, in both lists, were names of people. It was easy to remember these names because I use them often when referring to people. It was also easy to remember words that are used regularly including; angel, midnight and happy. I was already familiar with these words thus making them easy to remember. The first list was easy to remember than the second list. This is because the student was required to count backwards before writing what he remembers from the second list. The counting made me forget most of the words from the second list. In both list, it was also easy to remember words that I read in the final seconds.
I was not stunned by the outcome of this application because they are in line with what theories in the text say. One of the theories suggests that the human short term memory has a short duration (Ashcraft & Radvansky, 2009). Humans are only able to remember information for the first 15 seconds. The only way to keep information for a long time is to rehearse the information so as it can be converted into the long term memory. This is what happened. The names were easy to remember because the names already existed in the long term memory. It was also easier to memorize the words in the first list rather than the words in the second list. The counting made it difficult for one to memorize the words. Theories also suggest that new information is likely to replace the old information within the short term memory (Ashcraft & Radvansky, 2009). This theory may explain why it was easier to remember worlds that were encountered last.
Ashcraft M. & Radvansky G. (2009). Cognition. Pearson Publishers
A pest analysis can be used in helping to spot the personal and business opportunities and also advancing warnings of threats. However, I would like Barton to clarify how the tools can be used in analyzing the competitors because before a company can get into a certain marketplace, it is necessary for the management to be aware of the competitors in that business. It is necessary for a company to identify the competitors and also have an understanding of the approach that they are taking in order to help the company in developing and sustaining a competitive advantage.
Nursing Research Article Review
Nurse Overtime, Working Conditions, and the Presence of Mandatory Nurse Overtime Regulations
By Sung-Heui Bae, PhD, MPH, RN
The study focuses on how to regulate nurse overtime and demonstrating on the impacts of these regulations. The impacts are based on the nurses working environment and the actual time they are supposed to work. The study purpose was to compare and determine nurse overtime and their working conditions between different states. States that were used for this stated included those without and those with regulations limiting mandatory nurse overtime. The problem looked here was based on whether there existed any relationship between nurses overtime and their working condition. The study is relevant simply because it touches on the life of nurses and regulations that define the concept of overtime and their working conditions.
Previous studies indicate that nurses team offer continuous patient services all day long. These studies show that nurses in US provide services to patients in hospitals where they are required to work extra hours. Shortage of nurses a major worry that affects on the working conditions of patients. Overtime concept according to previous studies has been applied to handle normal variations in patient census and control chronic understaffing, (Berney, Needleman, & Kovner, 2005). Articles that are used in this study are relevant simply because they provide sound arguments towards the concept of the study.
Nearly all the references used to develop this study are current. 12 of the references used from the last five years and 20 references are from the last ten years.
Majority of nurses who work in hospitals rotate in three eight hour shifts which has been a major aspect that affects their working conditions. A good number of negative consequences of mistakes performed by nurses to patients are linked to the long overtime hours.
Occupational health nurses practices have failed in educating professionals in health care on dangers of working overtime. Some of the common and minor mistakes that are found in health care industry develop from the fact that nurses are overworked thus they tend not to be productive. It is the work of occupational health care nurses to ensure that professionals in this industry are well informed about dangers that are associated with overtime. The ultimate objective of this practice is to develop and implement on some regulations that will improve nurse working conditions and quality of patient care. These regulations will not limit the number of hours someone will voluntarily offer but will help understand on the impacts developed after working overtime for long.
The study purpose was to compare and determine nurse overtime and their working conditions between different states. The hypothesis of the study states whether nurse overtime affects their working conditions and if these regulations are similar in all states.
Do the nurse overtime and their working condition have any relationship?
What are the impacts of nurses working conditions as a result of their overtime?
How do regulations limit mandatory nurse overtime in health care industry?
The article focuses on determining on whether nurse overtime and their working conditions have impacts on patients quality care and also on whether regulations limit nurses on the level of overtime they want to volunteer in a day and how this may affect their working conditions.
Several variables are used to develop this study. There are independent variables, research variables and dependent variables that are used by the authors. Dependent variables are health status of nurses and number of kids they have in their families. The independent variables in this case are education and marital status simply because they aid in determining on the level of overtime a given participant is likely to have in his or her shift, in a given day.
Research variables are based on working conditions, which institute the, number of patients the nurse will attend, occurrence of the nursing shortage, and staffing strategies used in order to reduce the incidence of shortage of nurses in a given unit.
Another thing focused in the study is on whether different states uses the same concept of regulation for nurse’s overtime plus how nurse’s overtime contributes to mistakes made to patients.
Demographic variables have been used in completing this study. Age, education, race, gender, and marital status are some of the demographic variables that contribute in the development of the study. Demographic variables used in the study did not differ for the states selected, and that is why the results or data collected provided similar or almost the same findings. There was no difference that was arrived at between the two groups used based on the mandatory overtime.
The research design used in this study was quantitative survey data method. The outcomes of the study on nurses overtime were examined by the use of variance analysis.
T-test analysis was used to analyze data and give findings on the issue of overtime based on the two groups that were selected for the study.
Sample used for the study included 39, 450 RNs in one state and 10, 917, in the other state. The setting of this study was based on north Carolina and west Virginia with all participants from working hospitals. The sample size was selected depending on the size of the state thus the research was not biased in its sample size, and that is why findings did not show any difference based on the two groups.
Exclusion criteria were used with nurse younger than 30 years and those who in the bracket of 30 to 59 years and finally those who were over 60 years. This gave an environment to compare the two groups and how their working conditions developed any impacts on providing quality patient care.
Questionnaire and interviews were the two main measurement instruments that were used in the study. Participants were interviewed, or they were given some questionnaires which they responded as per the questions presented. The purpose of these instruments was to gather information from the participants and based on the results, they were reliable just like the previous instruments used in the past studies.
Hospital addresses were used for the purpose of responding questions. Data collection was developed in a systematic manner, and that is the reason why researchers of this study were able to develop relevant findings.
The T-test and chi-square were the two main statistical data analysis approach used to analyze data collected. Analysis was based on the percentage of the nurse working overtime in the two states while their working conditions are considered. These approaches did not show any sign of difference between the two groups focused in collecting data for the study.
According to the interpretation provided by the researcher, no difference exists between the two groups based on their working conditions and the overtime they take. This is because demographic of the two states did not differ in any way. Irrespective of the type of overtime taken, occupational health nurses should be educated on the dangers that aspect of overtime poses to patient quality care and nurses working conditions.
Bae, S. (2012). Nurse overtime, working conditions, and the presence of mandatory nurse overtime regulations. Workplace Health & Safety, 60(5), 205-214. doi:10.3928/21650799-20120426-01
De Castro, A., Cabrera, S., Gee, G., Fujishiro, K., & Tagalog, E. (2009). Occupational health and safety issues among nurses in the Philippines. AAOHN Journal: Official Journal Of The American Association Of Occupational Health Nurses, 57(4), 149-157
Gaudine, A., & Thorne, L. (2012). Nurses’ ethical conflict with hospitals: A longitudinal study of outcomes. Nursing Ethics, 19(6), 727-737. doi:10.1177/0969733011421626
Liquidity rations are ratios measuring the company’s ability to meet the short term debt obligations. Liquidity ratio is normally done through comparing the most liquid assets of the company and its short term liabilities. The gearing ratio normally provides an indication of the extent a business is financed by shareholder’s equity or external debt (Collier, 2012). People consider liquidity ratio as being the most essential ratio because it has the ability of determining if the organization has enough cash and assets that can be used to meet its liabilities. The gearing ratio is also essential because it shows the extent that the organization is financed, and it is important for the organization. An acid test helps in telling the creditors how much the organization’s short term debt can be met through selling of all the liquid assets of the organization in just a small notice. The information that is derived from acid test is how the company is covering the short term obligations. Acid test just considers parts that the current assets can be turned to cash immediately. Gearing refers to the amount of borrowings that are relative to the shareholder’s equity (Collier, 2012).
The ratio that a manager could calculate so that to get the true picture of the state of HMV Group is the acid-test ratio. This ratio will enable the manager in determining the ability of the group to afford the current obligation of the group while it is not using any of the inventories. When using this ratio, it is calculated by subtracting inventory from current asset and dividing it will the current liabilities (Collier, 2012). When the group maintains a high numeric value, it means that it has a significant amount of account receivables.
Collier, P (2012). Accounting for managers John Wiley and Sons
Critical Thinking Paper —Self-evaluation 2
The paper is structured into paragraphs including an introductory and concluding paragraph. The introduction defines the topic and lays the foundation for the delivery of the position statement of the critical thinking paper. After the statement of the position statement, the preceding paragraph each presents an argument with a consideration of a counterargument and a conclusion. In terms of the organization of the structure of the specific paragraphs, the paper meets the instructions. However, looking at each argument, a few fallacies could be recognized.
Paragraph six makes a conclusion based weak evidence. The concluding statement in paragraph six states “legalizing euthanasia can build the stepping stone for ensuring correct assessment and administration of the lethal substance intended to cause death”. This conclusion is based on the negative consequences of underground euthanasia without quantification of the prevalence of practice and the rates of its negative consequences. Secondly, the arguments for and against euthanasia were scattered in the paper without alignment with the corresponding counterarguments. The paper mentioned and described the arguments for euthanasia in succession and followed them up with the counterarguments. The third shortcoming of the paper is that the concluding paragraph focused only on the arguments for euthanasia.
In relation to non correspondence of arguments, I will reorganize the arguments presenting each argument alongside a counterargument followed by a concluding statement. Presenting arguments in this manner makes it possible to analyze arguments one by one while ensuring a smooth transition from one argument to the other. In relation to the concluding paragraph, it is necessary to pay tribute to both the propositions and oppositions with respect to the principal argument prior to writing the ultimate conclusion.
Using Technology and Media in Education
Technology has plays a significant role in the learning process. Technology has been used to make the learning process interactive, accommodative and applicable to the modern society. This paper evaluates the most recent innovation within the education technology field. It also examines how learning theories can be applied in the use of education technology, as well as, the drawback and benefits of using technology in education.
Innovations in Education Technology
Use of gaming technology in learning is one of the innovations that have been witnessed in the education technology field in the last five years. Gaming technology was previously used in the training of military, police and fire fighting personnel (Annetta, 2008). This technology was noted to be effective as it kept the trainees actively involved in the training process. Stakeholders within the education sector are now implementing the gaming technology within the education sector. Today, games that carry education themes have been developed for use in the education sector. The games require students to apply critical, problem solving and logic and memory skills.
The use of 3D technology is another innovation that has been witnessed in education technology field. Three D technology has been applied in several areas including gaming, TV, video and security (Rodrigues, Kormann & Davinson, 2011). In the last five years, education stakeholders have attempted to implement the 3D technology in education. Three D technology has the potential of enhancing the level of interaction between students and their instructors. Serious challenges have been encountered in terms of making websites and other application compatible with this technology.
Another innovation in education technology entails the use of social media in learning. A study conducted by Pearson Learning revealed that 75% of faculty members were using some form of social media in teaching (Wolf, Frawley & Torres, 2012). Online videos are the most commonly used social media within the learning contexts. Students are also required to comment on blog contents while others are required to post content on social media.
Ways of Applying Learning Theory
` One way in which learning theory should be applied in education technology is by integrating multiple media and activities within the technological media. Learning theories suggest that students have varied styles of learning (Koc, 2005). Thus, there is a need to ensure the technology being adopted can accommodate the learning styles and needs of all students. Incorporate multiple media such as sound, video, texts and audio files, with the technological environment will make the technology accommodative to all learners.
Education technology should also integrate the learning process with the learner’s everyday practice. Learning theories suggest that learning best takes place when the learner is able to execute acquired skills in dairy practices and routine (Koc, 2005). Thus, the students should be familiar with the technology and ways of applying the technology. The technology used should also assist the student to derive meaning and construct an understanding of his environment. Incorporating activities such as projects and case studies will play a significant role in terms of enhancing the learning process.
Learning theory can also be applied by making the technology highly interactive. Learning theories emphasize on the significance of collaboration and interaction in shaping the student’s learning process (Lingnau & Mannhaupt, 2008). Thus, education technology needs to foster collaboration and interaction. Interaction can be enhanced by incorporating technologies that facilitate communication and feedback.
Benefits and Drawbacks of Using Technology in Education
Technology introduces numerous benefits to the learning setting. First, technology enables instructors to make the learning process accommodative to all students (Koc, 2005). Students have varied learning needs and styles. Education provides teachers with multiple ways of delivering instructions. For instance, a video would appeal to visual, audio, visually impaired and students with hearing difficulties. This is because a video consist of several media including sound, visual elements and texts.
Technology also keeps the student involved in the learning process (Annetta, 2008). Technologies such as video games and social media turns student from passive to active participants within the learning process. This enhances comprehension and students’ commitment towards the learning process. Students’ attitude towards learning is likely to improve after the introduction of technology. Technology also expands collaboration and cooperation within the learning process (Lingnau & Mannhaupt, 2008). Technologies have facilitated the process of sharing information and ideas. Today, a student can post a question on the social media and receive hundreds of response from different sections of the globe.
There are also a few drawbacks in using technology in education. Use of technology in education may increase education disparities with society. Students and learning institutions have varied economic capacity (Koc, 2005). While some schools are capable of acquiring state of the art equipments others are unable to acquire the most basic learning technologies. This is likely to widen the education disparity within society.
Inadequate IT skills among students and teachers may also introduce challenges in the application of technology in education (Koc, 2005). Learners may fail to optimize the opportunities provide by these technologies when they do have adequate skills to operate these technologies. The quality of learning is also likely to suffer as a result of inadequate skills.
There are also serious incompatibility issues in the application of technology in education (Lingnau & Mannhaupt, 2008). New technology may introduce ways of learning that are not captured in state and national learning standards. For instance, while use of computers may require students to type their work, students are required to write during assessment.
Ways in which I intend to Use Technology
I intend to use technology in various ways, in my future education environment. One of these ways entails using technology to differentiate instructions (Koc, 2005). Differentiate instruction is essential in ensuring that all learners are accommodated within the learning process. I intend to use various media including, videos, presentation slides, audio files and digital images to diversify ways of delivering instructions to students.
I also intend to use technology to enhance cooperation and collaboration within the learning setting (Lingnau & Mannhaupt, 2008). Interaction and collaboration are vital parts of learning. Students shape their comprehension of issues through interaction peers and instructors. I intend to use technologies such as emails, social sites and blogs, to enhance cooperation and collaboration.
I will also use technology to enrich the learning content. Technologies such as the internet and online libraries provide vast education resources (Annetta, 2008). There are millions of pages available on the web that students can use to derive information. There are also hundred of online library and research databases that learners can utilize to aid the learning process. I intend to utilize the technological resources to augment the learning content.
Annetta L. (2008). Video Games in Education. Theory into Practice. 47: 229- 239
Koc M. (2005). Implications of learning Theories for Effective Technology Integration. Turkish Science Education Journal. 2 (1)
Lingnau H. & Mannhaupt G. (2008). Computer Supported Collaborative Learning. Computer Assisted Learning journal. 19: 186- 194
Rodrigues M. Kormann M. & Davinson L. (2011). A Case Study of 3D Technologies in Higher Education. May 21, 2013. http://www.jisc.ac.uk/media/documents/programmes/digitisation/econtent/econtent11_13/Rapid3dAppendixA.pdf
Wolf M. Frawley T. & Torres A. (2012) Using Social Media to Enhance Learning through Collaboration in Higher Education. May 21, 2013. http://ageconsearch.umn.edu/bitstream/124597/2/wolf%20social%20media%20case%20study%20AAEA%20ValuePulse.pdf
Critique Ethical Issues Regarding Information Technology
The focus is to be investigated is the ethical implication on information technology in a modern society. Evidence shows that information technology in history had limited impacts and applications on the society in general. Today things have changed simply because information technology has developed and it’s nearly used in everyday human activities and business operations. Despite the advantages that information technology has brought in the society, it also has millions of opportunities where individuals can engage in unethical information technology activities. This is the reason why businesses and education system have seen some essentials in addressing the ethical concerns of information technology development and usage in the society.
Societal Ethical Changes
There are several society ethical changes that occur as a result of information technology use in the society. In the past generations, information technology was something special that was reserved and could only be used for special cases in industries. Not everyone used technology, and that users of information technology had specific information that they were supposed to use. This has changed in the recent times where information technology has become one of the few growing industries. It is with no doubts that most people in the world interacts with some form of information technology when conducting that everyday activities. This kind of interaction poses great challenges in humans because they use and access to information that could be used in unethical situations, (Schwartz, 2011).
The extent to which people have access to information technology has created some worries to the society because it develops a number of society ethical changes. People are able to access no sensitive and sensitive information that may be a threat in the development of the society. Some of the changes include using information gained to victimize or harass individuals, reverse engineering programs for the purpose of gaining trade secrets, and accessing private information for personal benefits. Due to the mass usage of information technology, security measures and laws have been established so as to protect people from the vulnerabilities that occur. Although these measures have been established, the problem has not been completely solved because information technology has been used by different people to accomplish their criminal activities, (Miller & Jentz, 2009).
Ethical Usage of Information Technology
While looking at ethical usage of information technology, there are two main areas that should be focused. The first area is the personal level, and the second area is the commercial level usage of information technology. In the first area, we look at how individuals are into the use of technology for their personal benefits. At a personal level, people use information technology for publishing information online, making a purchase in the e-business, conducting legitimate business online, family interaction, and communicating with people immediate you. Having all this, there are some unethical behavior activities that develop when someone uses information technology in malicious or fraudulent manner. People is engaging in fraudulent activities such as stealing personal information of other people by hacking their computers, hacking company’s systems and stealing vital data, engaging in activities of establishing a new identity with the help of stolen personal information, and accessing electronic database so as to get clients relevant information that can be useful. Some of The malicious situations based on the usage of information technology include cyber crimes, spread of viruses, online scams to victimize people, and bullying people, (Brooks, 2010).
Development of Code of Ethics
Due to a number of controversies, development of code of ethics in the field of information technology has been a challenge. The first worry in developing corporate code of ethics relates to negative signs that pose engender society change in the use of information technology into the organization setting. The ethical concern developed here is that an organization is forced into a socialistic trap that prevents in the sustainability of the firm in the appropriate manner. Another worry is that information technology field is different in characteristics as compared to other types of business components in the same industries thus developing its codes of ethics becomes difficult, (Jourdan et al., 2010).
Solutions to ethical challenges in information technology field develop ethical dilemmas. We have seen that balancing the constitutional rights with the aspect of protective measures creates challenges in this field. This limits the use of information collected in developing criminal activities because, on the other hand, there are some rights such as freedom of speech which both the affected person and the criminal are entitled. Dealing with personal ethical infractions has become difficult as compared to commercial setting simply because in commercial infractions there is legislation that are created in order to deal with unethical behaviors that affect the public, (Lamb, 2010).
Ethical behavior has developed some ethical worries in information technology, which is not, difficult define, but the challenging thing is on how to implement standards of ethical behaviors. This is in regards to information technology usage and its development based on legally protected characteristics and unique of the usage of information technology. To protect company setting it is essential to come up with certain standards that enclose legal and ethical codes that help control legitimate opportunities of employees and other parties related.
Brooks, R. (2010). The development of a code of ethics:American Journal of Business Education, 3(10), 1
Jourdan, Z. et al. (2010). An investigation of organizational information security risk analysis.Journal of Service Science, 3(2), 33-42
Kavathatzopoulos, I. (2003). The use of information and communication technology in the training for ethical competence in business. Journal of Business Ethics, 48(1), 43-51
Lamb, A. (2010). Everyone does it: teaching ethical use of social technology. Knowledge Quest, 39(1), 62-65
Miller, R.L. & Jentz, G.A. (2009).Fundamentals of business law: Excerpted cases, 2nded. Mason, OH: South-Western Cengage Learning
Schwartz, M. (2011). Why ethical codes constitute an unconscionable regression.Journal of Business Ethics, 23(2), 173-184
How The Course As Helped Me
Communication is predominantly based writing as its dominant foundation. Through efficient writing, one is capable of conveying important and distinct ideas and information. Through this course, I have learnt that the vital aspect is to be careful that the message I pass is correctly interpreted by the readers. This involves ensuring that the grammar, timing, vocabulary and other necessary writing skills convey the mastery of writing techniques. These skills are vital especially in college and university level because all my assignments are graded based on my ability to communicate. Advanced writing will enable me to reach my goals through the use of my strength, dealing with my weaknesses and effective preparation of my future career.
As a writer, I have developed my personal strengths in writing. Some of these strengths are being informative, precise, persuasive and creative. This means that I use creative writing as a means of expressing my emotions, feelings, and thoughts. Through persuasive writing, I am able to convincing readers to come to my viewpoint on a given topic. Since most people experience the challenge of a specific topic aspect all through an informative session. I have learned to write in a precise manner that ensures that readers do not get lost along the way. I am also good in informative writing, and this helps me to inform readers concerning issues. This information ranges from the unknown to known ideas. I am able to explain in a manner that ensures readers understand even the most discrete ideas.
I also have some weaknesses in writing. One of the common challenge I experience is the writer’s block which makes me take a lot of time to before getting down to writing on a topic. I also sometimes face the challenges of unwanted repetitiveness, poor use of punctuations, lack of accurate grammar and extended vocabulary. Lack of using the right punctuation marks like full stops, apostrophes, and comers end up confusing readers. It is essential that I always ensure that every sentence is always informative with the right punctuation. Therefore, mistakes in the use of sentences hinder the quality of the whole sentence. Another problem is extended vocabulary. This means that I experience difficulty in using my own words by rephrasing a paragraph or sentence (Jones & Farnes, 2002, p 56).
Another mistake I make during writing is repetition of a subject or idea. Also, poor grammar or unclear grammar can make a reader think that I lack prestige or sufficient education. These are the main challenges I experience in writing. It is essential that I always handle these problems by advancing my writing skills. I have to ensure that my writing is always up to the college and university level. This by ensuring in grammar classes and addressing all other weaknesses, through the appropriate strategies. Addressing all these challenges will help me gain confidence in writing and improve my overall performance in writing. Building skills in this course will give me the advantage of enhancing my college career and my future career goals. Generally, this class has given me high level training in written communication and given me the knowledge for achieving my goals in this class. Writing skills will give the foundation of effective communication. This is because having the right techniques, correct use of punctuation and grammars enables me to express myself in written communication.
Jones P and Farnes, J (2002) College writing skills. Rowman & Littlefield. p 56
Critical Essay: Neil Postman Technopoly
Neil Postman in the book Technopoly: the Surrender of Culture to Technology looks at the effects technology has had on society. In the first chapter, Postman presents notions of how technology has led to positive and adverse consequences in societies. The emergence of technology in society has been widely regarded as a positive occurrence geared to drive societies to great achievements. Postman, however, presents an objective perspective on the effects of technology. Postman discusses the advent of technology from the technology of television and to the emergence of computers. Post man presents a holistic perspective to technological change and states that there are positive and adverse consequences of technological advancements. Postman’s book is valid, concise and an eye-opener to societies that are blindly adopting all forms of emerging technologies. It is vital to scrutinize the positive and negative effects of technology. It is after a critical analysis of these technologies that societies will be able to make a choice on whether to adopt a technology.
Postman uses legends and philosopher to explain his claims. In chapter one, the author presents the case of Thamus, the king of Egypt. Thamus had permitted god Theus to show him many inventions that could benefit the society. God Theus introduced king Thamus to the art of writing. King Thamus was skeptical about writing believing that it would encourage forgetfulness in man as individuals will rely on their writing to remember (Postman, 2011). Postman reveals the error in judgment for the ing as he chose to look at the potential negative effects of the technology of writing. Postman indicates that technology should be analyzed as a burden and a blessing. It is vital for societies to analyze the pros and cons of every technology introduced in society so as to understand the long run effect. What postman is trying to point out is that mankind must not blindly embrace all forms of technology introduced. Postman presentation king Thamus’ case is ideal as it leaves readers pondering over the King's fears. Today, man has embraced the technology of writing and believes to be among the best forms of expressions (Szoka, & Marcus, 2011). However, King Thamus concerns leave readers with lingering questions on the validity of his claims.
Whereas the technology of writing has been beneficial to societies, it is true that it has resulted to mental laxity as man prefers to write down important information rather than burden his mind with a lot of information. Technology that is introduced in society results to changes that societies should be prepared for. The introduction of technology in the production industry, for instance, may be viewed as appositive move towards increasing production and efficiency. However, what the production industry may fail to appreciate is that the rise of technology will lead to job cuts as task performed by workers will be completed by machines. Technology may also result to increased redundancy among employees who may become extremely reliant on technology to assist them perform their responsibilities.
Postman uses King Thamus reasoning to demonstrate the need for man to think deep before embracing any technologies in their lives. Technology exposes mankind to new definitions of knowledge. For instance, in the past individuals that were skilled in writing were deemed knowledgeable. However, technological advancements have further exposed man to advanced levels of knowledge (Grublerr, 2003). Currently, individuals who are able to access advanced levels of technologies can access advanced knowledge, which gives the underserved reputation for wisdom.
Individuals that embraced the technology of writing used it to explain oral cultures. Increased respect was due to the ability of the writers to put oral information into written texts using writing technology. Postman illustrates Innis inference of the bible. The bible is supposed to have been written by people inspired by the spirit of God (Postman, 2011). Christians across the world use the bible as a source of knowledge without questioning it. Unfortunately, the power, respect and sense of authority accorded to these writers are bound to wane over time. The same technology that has enabled writers to emerge has also led to the proliferation of internet authors.
The technology of the internet permits anyone with an idea to write it down in a website or a blog. The level of respect accorded to writers of the earlier times is waning as technology has enabled anyone to become a writer. Technology has led to an influx of knowledge in which members of the society are exposed to volumes of information that is potentially irrelevant. The exposure of excess information results to increased lack of understanding and increased information (Szoka, & Marcus, 2011). The influx of information means that the society is exposed to a lot of information to the extent that it is impossible to determine the information that is relevant from information that is irrelevant. In the end, the exposure to excess information leads to acquisition of no information.
Postman also points out Thamus inference to the fact that new technologies compete with older technologies for authority (Postman, 2011). For instance, print media is gradually been overtaken by visual media as computers, and television technology continue to advance. The risk with technology is the fact that it neither contributes nor eliminated but rather, it alters society and the way of thought. Improvement in visual technology has exposed man to many vices. Children, for instance, access violent video games and pornographic content on the internet without their parent’s knowledge. The ease of access to this information has degraded the moral framework of individual’s in society as they attempt to ape what they have accessed on the computers. In other words, technology is gradually changing the human mind.
Postman is able to bring to the surface the reality that as much as technology has brought numerous positive attributes; it also has negative effects that can no longer be ignored. Scientists stipulate that technologies such as the internet interfere with the ability of man to think and learn. The presence of internet diminishes man learning and thinking abilities as all information that he may require is easily accessible on the internet (Szoka, & Marcus, 2011). The ease of accessibility means that man does not have to learn anything unless he needs to. The brain is considered an elastic organ that is susceptible to change. The exposure to technologies such as the internet has changed the human brain to the extent that man spends less time concentrating on specific information. It is, therefore, true that technology has given man a wide exposure to knowledge, but it has also taken man’s ability to process information adequately. Man has a tendency to take the information gathered from internet sources as the absolute truth and rarely is their need for questioning these sources.
Postman indicates that there is a need for societies to analyze the benefits and deficits that will occur as a result of technology in society. However, he also emphasizes on the need on focusing on the positive functions of a technology. Understanding the negative and positive functions of a technology will allow man to promote the positive functions while establishing strategies to curtail the negative functions. It is vital to have adequate understanding of a technology before integrating it into society. Throughout the paper, postman throws questions that leave readers pondering on the effects on the different technologies around us. However, without a distinct argument against society’s rush to embrace technologies, postman takes readers back to the aspect of quantification and how it has affected man’s understanding of numbers.
Postman analyzes how academic institution relies on numbers to grade student thoughts and determine his qualifications (Postman, 2011). Postman points out how the technology of quantifying student thoughts was introduced and widely accepted in learning institutions to the extent that it is now considered a norm. In reality, quantifying a student thoughts and using the numbers acquired to gauge suitability or qualifications is wrong. Determining a child’s qualification by subjecting him through graded test is a narrow way of determine learning and achievements. There are many external factors that may interfere with the student’s ability to excel (Grublerr, 2003).
Postman also points out how technology has resulted to change of culture across societies. Traditionally, man invented tools with the sole purpose of improving his life. The tools did not serve as a change of culture. Unfortunately, in today’s society, technology such as computers has changed cultures across societies. Postman successfully manages to demonstrate how technology has undeniably changed culture (Postman, 2011). Technology has changed how people conduct business and ran their daily lives. The need for physical contact in business is no longer a prerequisite. Technologies such as teleconferencing have eliminated the need for physical meetings. Friendship and relationship are formed via social sites hence the lack of physical relations. Interpersonal relationships have gradually worn off in the face of technology. Children in today’s society learn through the internet, own cell phones and have personal computers. Children are gradually drowning in computers, internet and video games, gradually detaching themselves from their families and the real world.
Postman’s argument that technology has its benefits and deficits is an undeniable fact. Computers have provided societies with excellent technologies that have enhanced communication and improved on work performance. However, it is impossible to ignore the negative effects that technologies have caused in society. Computers have, for instance, improved access of information. Unfortunately, the same computers have led to an influx of information to the extent that man is constantly faced with volumes of information that he does not need. Computers have also increased the workload for the modern child who has to read books as traditionally required and still access information on the internet. At the workplace, technological advancement have been found to enhance performance and efficient. Unfortunately, the same technologies have resulted to increased redundancy among employees as workers have seen their task taken over by machines. Post managed to bring out the positive and negative aspects of technology in society. His advice on the need for societies to analyze the positive and negative aspects related to the adoption of technology in society is valid. He supports his claims with strong points that flow logically from one paragraph to another.
Grublerr, A. (2003). Technology and global change. Cambridge university press
Postman, N. (2011). Technopoly: the surrender of culture to technology. Knopf Doubleday Publishing Group
Szoka, B. & Marcus, A. (2011). The next digital decade. Tech freedom