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Items filtered by date: December 2013

Wednesday, 11 December 2013 05:15

Forms of Answers

Forms of Answers


Short Answers

  1. The art of cooking was important for the development of humans and their society as it led to the growth of the human brain (Sanderson, 2001). Cooking made it easy for humans to eat, digest food and absorb essential nutrients leading to the development of big brains. The art of cooking also led to the development of family relationships, homes and health, which are an essential part of the human society. 
  2. The transatlantic exchange was a trade that entails export of African slaves from the Africa to the American continent. One of the consequences of the social consequences is the rapid economic growth of the American content. The trade also led to increased diversity within human society. Today, the American continent has a highly diverse human population.
  3. Epidemic of obesity can be defined as the prevalence of individual with excess body fat and weight within societies (Sanderson, 2001). Poor eating culture is one of the primary causes of the epidemic of obesity. Development of a passive culture has also contributed to the prevalence of obesity. Genetics also play a significant role in the development of obesity.
  4. Food preferences are produced socially. People from the same social context tend to have similar food preferences. For instance, the Japanese are widely acknowledged for their sushi, American for the hamburgers and Italians for the Pizza (Sanderson, 2001). The confinement of these food preferences to social context supports the argument that food preference is socially produced. Similarly, people who live a cultural framework that is dissimilar from their indigenous culture tend to adopt the food preferences of the local culture. For instance, Japanese who are born and raised in America are likely to prefer American dishes to native Japanese dishes.
  5. The meaning of food can drastically change overtime, in line with changes taking place in other aspects of society. For instance, in the ancient times, people dedicated a lot of time to the task of finding food (Sanderson, 2001). The entire day was spent in activities such as hunting, fishing and gathering. Food was seen as the goal or end-result of all daily activities. However, today people take food in order to facilitate their daily activities. Food has become a means for them to continue with other economic activities. The perception of the link between health and food has also been altered. In the past, humans used to take a lot of calories in order to boost their health. Today, many health conditions are associated with the intake of excessive calories of food. Opponent of this argument may point at the fact that food remains a vital part of the human society (Sanderson, 2001). While this argument is true, it cannot disapprove the fact that the meaning derived from food by modern day people is significantly different from the meaning perceived by ancient people.

Long Answers

People who argue that food preferences are naturally produced suggest that people are born with the food preferences. Existence of people with different food preferences with the same social setting is one of the examples used to support the argument that food preferences are naturally produced (Sanderson, 2001). Proponents of this argument suggest that people within the same social context can have different preferences because their genetic make-up is different.  However, this argument can be disapproved by the fact that close family members, who live far from each other, tend to develop different preferences.


If genetics was the main determinant of food preferences, then, close family members should have the same preferences regardless of the differences in the social contexts. Another example used to support the nature argument is the fact that food conditions such as diabetes, lactose intolerance and obesity can be genetically transmitted. However, this argument can also be dismissed because the largest proportions of individuals who have this condition acquire them through their lifestyles rather than genetics.


References

African Creates (2005). The Transatlantic Trade. May 20, 2013. http://www.dac.gov.za/publications/heritage%20booklet/slave%20trade.pdf

Sanderson S. (2001). The Evolution of Human Sociality. USA. Rowman & Littlefield


Published in Education
Wednesday, 11 December 2013 05:06

Nursing Research Article Review Worksheet

Nursing Research Article Review Worksheet


Courtney, E, Ploeg J and Kassalainen S (2011) Case study of the attitudes and values of nursing students toward caring for the older adults.

  1. Describe the study and how it relates to your area of nursing.
  2. How do you know this article is peer reviewed?
  3. Identify the research questions.
  4. Identify the hypothesis and variables.
  5. Identify theoretical framework.
  6. Is the article a qualitative or quantitative research study? Explain your reasoning.

 This study examines the values and studies of fourth-year nursing students towards caring for older adults and their specific experiences with older adults. The method of study employed by research is Yn’s exploratory case study design. Fifty one students were included as a single case. They were later divided into three units, which are the anti-aged, pro-aged, and those with neutral bias towards the older adults. The main values tested are independence, wisdom, caring, experience, respect and wisdom. Five attitudes tested include love being with older adults, feeling sorry for them, frustrates with them and dislike them.

This is a relevant study especially with the increasing number of the aging population and their complex and varied needs. These new phenomena in nursing demands for more gerontological nurses than we have today. The implications of this study are of great relevance to my practice and education. This study guides me on the right attitudes such as respect and ability to care which are essential in developing positive relationships with older adults.

 



There are four ways of determining if an article is under the peer-review category. First is to limit the database search to only peer-review materials. This means that in finding this article, I had to limit my search to peer reviewed articles. I used an academic database for this institution allows me to limit my search for peer-review articles only. I also confirmed with the Ulrichsweb.com database to determine if this journal is under the peer-review article category. The last aspect is to examine the article publication to determine if it is a peer-review article. This comes in after the two above mentioned aspects are not showing if the article is a peer-review.

 

What are the values and attitudes do the fourth-years BSN students have towards providing care to older adults. How are these values and attitude influenced by their experiences (this include work, personal and those already in BSN programs).

 

The main hypothesis includes

1). That the core values such as experiences, wisdom, caring and respect are what determine the establishment of positive relationships with among nurses and older adults.

2.) The main or instrumental values are caring and respect.

3.) Terminal values include aspects like experiences and wisdom.

Various experiences had different influences students’ personal, values and attitudes towards older adults. Such experiences include volunteer or work experiences, BSN program experiences and personal experiences at home such as caring for their grandparents.

The variables are tested according to gender, age, experiences (educational, work and personal), BSN program on affiliation site, and biases concerning older adults.

 

This work is based on the theoretical framework given by various theorists. One of them is Rokeach (1968) in the theory of Organization and Change that explores beliefs, values, and attitudes and their impact to behavior. The theorist states that beliefs are prepositions which can be derived. These beliefs are influenced by actions and attitude towards a situation or object, consequently leading to behavioral response. This means that attitudes impact on behavior. Rokeach defines that actions occur within a preferential manner and can be based on dislikes and likes or evaluations of bad and good. Nursing students can, for example, chooses gerontological clinical placement because they believe it’s a good learning experience or like to be with older adults.

 

 This is a qualitative study that uses pilot study as its research design. The study precisely focuses on the researchers’ theories and concerns. The aim is to test methods and ideas and explore their effect or aim at establishing a grounded theory. The uses of a pilot study for this qualitative research are to help in better understanding of theories and concepts held by the subjects who are the fourth year BSN students.

The pilot study is not used as a means of getting additional concepts towards the theory used on Organization and Change and impact to a person’s attitude and actions. It is, therefore, helpful in understanding the actual aspects of phenomena, and how they impact on meaning. The pilot study in this qualitative research helps to understand how students respond to the event of caring for the older adults. The perspectives and meanings in a qualitative study constitute to a vital focus on the theory and to enhance the topic of the theory by Rokeach (1968). It is not used for building new blocks or a source of theoretical insights.


Reference

Courtney, E, Ploeg J and Kassalainen S (2011) Case study of the attitudes and values of nursing students toward caring for the older adults.


Published in Nursing
Wednesday, 11 December 2013 04:28

Business Organizations

Business Organizations


Question 1

This section presents a review of the http://www.ombooks.com/ website. This website belongs to the OM Bookshop. It provides the organization with an online platform for selling books. Books are the core commodity sold through the OM Bookshop’s website. The website offers a variety of books including novels, inspirational books, class texts and many others. However, the websites also provide custom with options. Apart from buying books, customs can also buy other items such as mobile phones and computer applications through the site. Users can also purchase items such as computers, cameras and other electronics, automobiles and fashion product through this site. OM Bookshop has made noteworthy efforts in terms of enhancing the usability of the site. The website has divided the commodities into broad categories and created a page for each product category. The link to each product category is found at the top of the page making navigation easy for users. The categories also make it easy for users to find an item.


The website has also provided search tool that enables users to search items. This enables users to located items with ease. OM Bookshop’s website has also simplified the process of making a purchase. The process of purchasing an item begins by clicking on the item. The site opens a shopping cart when the user clicks on an item. The user is then provided with an option of proceeding to the checkout point or that of continuing to update the cart. OM Bookshop website provides personal attention to users as it allows them to create their accounts on the websites. The accounts make the process of making purchases easy. The accounts have also enabled OM Bookshop’s to implement a reward program. Regular clients, who have accounts on the websites, receive discounts on purchases.


OM Bookshop has also made its website appealing by making attractive display of products. The website presents the front covers of books and images of items thus attracting customer to the website. The color scheme is also simple and attractive. However, OM Bookshop has not made the website interactive. There is no application for enabling customers to chat with the custom support team. The custom can only get in touch with the support team through email and telephone. The website does also make provision for clients to review products and share product information. The website needs to enhance its interactiveness in order to enhance its efficiency.


Question 2

            This section presents a report to consultant. The consultant was hired to advise the organization on how to improve its performance. The insurance company intends to change its method of communicating with the customer. The report present various issues that the consultants need to consider while making his recommendations.


            ABZ is a large insurance company. ABZ offers both life and general insurance services. The firm’s product mainly targets the middle income group. The company has established branches in all major cities. This has been a vital point of strength for the firm. The large scale of its operation has exposed the firm to large market. The company has also recorded a strong financial performance over the last two decades aided by the popularity of the company’s brand. The strong financial performance helped to boost the financial position of the firm. Over the years, ABZ brand has been associated with the delivery of affordable insurance solution for its customers. This positioning aided the firm to develop a strong brand.


            Today, the company is experiencing difficulties competing on price. The price advantage has been eroded by other companies that have been able to come with their own quick solutions. The company had not established other sources of competitiveness. The dependence of low cost strategy has also affected the quality of our services. The firm finds it difficult to compete with companies that offer additional service features. The company has also laid little emphasis toward enhancing the relationship between the firm and its customers. Customers view the firm as a traditional company that offer cheap and low quality products. In order to enhance its competitiveness, ABX needs to change its brand identity.


            ABZ can enhance the brand identity of the company by exploring various opportunities. One of these opportunities is technology. Technology will enable ABZ to increase the efficiency of its operations. In this way, the organization will be able to maintain low cost without compromising the quality of products.  It will also enable the firm to enhance the communication and relationships with its customers. ABZ can also make use of the growing insurance market. ABZ can introduce fresh and innovative products thus increasing the appeal of the company. Customers love options and thus providing a variety of services will communicate a positive image.


            ABZ should look out for threats such as increased competition within the industry. Many players have joined the industry making the market highly saturated. This has increased the cost of operation and driven the prices downward. The prevailing economic condition has also affected the insurance business. The prevailing economic condition has led to the decline of the population’s purchasing power. This has affected the demand for the company’s products.  


Question 3

            The main target of private corporations is often to make profits. Many people argue that making profits is the only ethical responsibility for corporate organization. However, I believe that companies have to be accountable to society, as well as, the environment. This is because corporations are vital parts of society.


            Private businesses do not exist in a vacuum. They exist in a social context and this makes them part of the society. Businesses draw their employees from society. The investors and customers are also part of the society. Thus, businesses have the same responsibilities, as any other member of society, to ensure that societal interests are protected and advanced. Similar, businesses depend on natural resources in order to operate. Thus, they have a responsibility of ensuring that the natural environment is also protected. Concentrating on the maximization of profit is not sustainable because of the intertwined nature of the relationship between businesses, society and the environment.


          In my country, CSR is an essential part of business organization. This is because our collective nature of our culture. In collective cultures, such as ours, the interests of society are highly emphasized. However, corporations have not played a significant role in influencing ethical issues such gender parity, democracy and individual freedom. Women still face limited opportunities within corporations. It is difficult to find many women occupying to positions within corporations. The corporations have also made little efforts toward promoting freedom of individuals and democratization of society.


Published in Business Studies
Wednesday, 11 December 2013 04:21

Organizational Behavior In Health Care

Organizational Behavior In Health Care


Question 1.

Value chain in healthcare facilities

According to Michael Porter, a value chain is a back-to-back set of actions which collectively generate value to customers.  Value chain provides a crucial analysis of how different activities in an organization contribute to the final value of the end product or service delivered. Health care organizations have strategically used value chain to the quality of services they offer to clients. The process to use value chain in health facilities resulted from the need for these facilities to reduce the growing cost of offering health care services. Healthcare facilities are, therefore, expected to come up with ways of ensuring efficiency within limited resources. A value chain in a healthcare facility may take a form of vertical integration or horizontal integration of processes. Value chain activity in a healthcare organization would be in the form of introducing a new specialized line that deals exclusively with cardiac diseases or employment of a specialized physician and then market the facility as a center of excellence in cardiac management.


Question 2.

Area of connection in a value chain

One of the areas where connection of activities is crucial in the value chain, in healthcare facilities, is to ensure there is a connection in all levels. Medical decisions are made on the basis of information that are gathered by different staff within the healthcare setting. There is great emphasis on guarantying that there is good communication amid the laboratory department and physician to ensure samples are taken and tested in a professional way. Therefore, there is a need to ensure both horizontal and vertical linkage in a healthcare organization to ensure there is effective communication and effective transfer of information from one department to the other. A lot of emphasizes and efforts should be directed at ensuring that these linkages are maintained because a collapse in any point of the linkage would result into the total collapse of the entire value chain thus making in useless to the primary goal of ensuring customer focused activities.


Question 3.

Shortcoming of annual performance appraisal

It is true that annual performance reviews used by many organizations are a poor measure of success. These reviews are not a good or adequate measure of employees’ performance. They are rarely focused on measurable outcomes of employees’ activities. They are basically opinions of individual employee on the performance of the other employees. There is a common tendency among mangers to use recent performance of an employee to make a conclusion about the annual performance of that particular employee. This results into ignoring the long-term performance of the employee throughout the year. These results into what is commonly referred to as the “horn or halo” effect. Most organizations do not invest in establishing employee goals of performance. This hampers the development of an accurate performance assessment system. The reviews are not based on facts; they are objective and are not based on set goals. In the presence of shared goal within an organization, there is lack of clearly stated outcome measures. In addition, healthcare managers never seek feedback from fellow managers or coworkers on the performance of employees


 References

Spector, B. (2010). Implementing organizational change: Theory into practice (2nd ed). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Prentice

 Borkowski, N. (2005). Organizational behavior in health care. Sudbury, MA: Jones and Bartlett Publishers.


Published in Management
Wednesday, 11 December 2013 04:17

A Balanced Diet

A Balanced Diet


Question 1

Emily is a lacto ovo vegetarian. This is because she refrains from meat but consumes animal products. Based on her diet plan, Emily has various sources of proteins. This includes soy milk and stir-fried vegetables (Veitch, 2012). These food substances are massively rich in proteins. Emily’s daily intake is not consistent with the recommendations stipulated in MYPyramid. For instance, her entire diet has minimal content of fibrous foods. In order to enhance her diet’s quality, Emily must consume sufficient fibrous foods and also reduce her intake of fats. She must also avoid the intake of potato chips.


Question 2

Emily is at risk of various nutritional deficiencies. For instance, her diet plan lacks sufficient water. Water is an inherent component of a balanced diet. In view of such an aspect, Emily should incorporate more water into her diet so that she can avert the different nutritional deficiencies associated with insufficient water. In order to facilitate for nutritional adequacy, it is crucial for Emily to avoid the various food substances which have a high content of calories.


Question 3

While Emily expected to lose weight, she ended up gaining. This is largely caused by the inadequate balance of the different food substances in her diet.  Firstly, it is massively essential for Emily to avoid a high intake of fats. Based on such a plan, she must avoid the potato chips. It is also notable that Emily consumes numerous food substances at a go. This dietary habit forms the basis of weight gain (Veitch, 2012). In place of the buttered popcorn and potato chips, Emily should consume more fruits. This includes mangoes and watermelons. These are highly nutritious and also prevent excessive weight.


Reference

Veitch, C. (2012). A balanced diet, Raintree Publications


Published in Education
Wednesday, 11 December 2013 04:10

Writing Exercises p 70

Writing Exercises p 70


2. Causal modeling helps a reader to visualize the interconnections among variables. For my quantitative proposal on How Well Are Regular Community-Based after School Program Teachers Trained to Work with Students with Autism or Emotional Behavioral Disorder can be analyzed according to visual model. The visual model can be in the form of cause-and-effect or left to right presentation. It shows the independent variables as the factors that influence, affect or cause outcomes. They can be the predictor, antecedent, treatment and manipulated variables. The second category involves the dependent variables which rely on the independent variables. They comprise of results and outcomes coming from the independent variable influence. The third category is the mediating or intervening variables that are between the dependent and independent variables.


The moderating variables are created by a researcher through these of a variable and multiplying it with another variable so as to achieve a joint impact. Last category involves the confounding and control variables. Control variables are as a specific type of independent variables used by the researcher to measure its influence to the dependent variable. Confounding variables are the observed and not measured variables in a study.


Virtual model

Skills of after school program teachers

                                               Training of teachers/ improving communication

Lack of facilities

For students with disabilities                                                  poor academic performance.

                                                                                         Lack of social skills among

                                                                                            Students with autism and EBD

 Dependent variables

 Equipping after school programs


 Intervening variable

Independent variable

3. Locate qualitative journal articles that generate or develop a theory at the end of the study, and (c).

a.) constructing the empirically grounded theory calls for the need to establish a reciprocal relationship between theory and data. Data can be allowed to provide propositions in a dialectical way and allows the use of Priori theory frameworks. A qualitative journal an article that uses Priori theory is by Shah S, & Corley, K (2006). The researchers use grounded theory as a tool for analysis. This is because the technique is for illuminating and creating a novel theoretical concept and its prevalence use on organizations literature on social sciences.


 b.) Morrow and Smith (1995) in their study were able to generate data at the end of their study after collecting data. This is through first prescribing a theory in the beginning and generating tan appropriate theory in the process of data collection and analysis. The same is also done by Creswell and Brown 1992 whereby they pose the theory as being a logic diagram and provide contrasting and contending theory with the model generated at the end of their study (Creswell and Urbom 1997).


c.) An example of a qualitative journal article that provided descriptive research without paying homage to a theoretical model is by Lowe, 1997. It is a study on conceptual requirement on the methodology of GT that easily gets lots in QDA challenges on constructivism, type data, accuracy, data collection, participant voice and rigor as per the representative requirements that a described in a flexibility approach. This result in to the hindrance of classic GT methodology and its ability to transcended structures of accurate measurement under the guidance of a conceptual model represent descriptive without an explicit theoretical model. The model provides a fundamental social pattern within the substantive inquiry.


4.Love C (2013) Generations Apart: A mixed methods study of black women’s attitude about race and social activism. Retrieved from http://aura.antioch.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1015&context=etds On May 28, 2013


           My internet search was on the issue on social discrimination for a study that uses mixed methods. The problem definition arises from the social milieu that black women involved with w issues on social justice are viewed as race women. The mixed method is generated by investigating generational differences in attitudes and race that contribute to social justice among black women. The researcher had to spend considerable time with participants making them to trusts her with their stories. Research questions explored issues on gender, generational cohort, and race. They were asked in through foreshadowing questions and other relevant questions. The questions focused on the historical background on issues of race among black women (Love, 2013).


The Research Design is an expository sequential mixed method study in finding out the generational differences in social justice involvement and racial attitude among Black women. Researchers treated participants with ethical respect and consideration by maintaining their confidentiality. Data Sources included focus group, personal interviews and open-ended and closed questions surveys. Selecting partisans is via the snowball, purposes approach for the qualitative phrase. There is a random selection, convenience and snowball sampling for quantitative phase. The participants vary as per generation. In order to improve inclusiveness the researcher handles conflicting data by adding an additional phrase (Creswell, 2008, p 20. The qualitative data collection methods are appropriate in the collection of theoretical constructs.


                                                     Reference

Lowe, Andy (1997). Managing to Post Merger Aftermath-Default Remodeling.

Creswell, John W. (1998). Qualitative Inquiry and Research Design. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.

Love C (2013) Generations Apart: A mixed methods study of black women’s attitude about race and social activism. Retrieved from http://aura.antioch.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1015&context=etds On May 28, 2013

Morrow, S. L., & Smith, M. L. (1995). Constructions of survival and coping by women who

Have survived childhood sexual abuse. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 42, 24-33

Shah S, & Corley, K (2006) Building better theory by bridging the qualitative and quantitative divide. http://faculty.washington.edu/skshah/Shah,%20Corley%20-%20Qualitative%20Methods.pdf

Mertens D  (2003), Mixed Methods and the Politics of Human Research. Handbook of Mixed Methods

Creswell, J (2009) Research design: Qualitative, quantitative, and mixed methods approach. Thousand Oaks, Sage Publications.

Cozby, P (2012). Methods in behavioral research. Boston: McGraw Hill Higher Education. ISBN: 9780078035159


Published in Education
Tuesday, 10 December 2013 14:47

Response

Response


Would you open administrative team positions for the new service line internally first? 

Yes,

The process is a good way of rewarding employees who have portrayed excellent skills in the job. This may motivate employees to increase their commitment to the organization. Sourcing internally is cost-effective compared to external hiring. The organization is likely to hire the best employees because the hiring team can access the past performance of the employee to assume the new positions.  The process has the potential of creating a successive promotion among employees. The process also reduces the likelihood of hiring new employees who have appealing papers but lack the necessary practical competencies. The hiring process is likely to be short


Are there some potential problems with this approach?

Despite its advantages, the process is likely to cause organizational inbreeding. The developed personnel may have a limited perspective to the organization and challenges facing the organization and generally the entire industry.  The organization will also be required to direct a lot of resources to train and develop the required competencies among the staff. Singling out certain employees for the new position is likely to trigger political infighting among employees for promotion. It potentially generates resentment and lack of cooperation between the newly promoted staff and the team he or she will be in charge of.  The process is also seen as a way of retaining status quo within an organization. Internal sourcing may also retain existing culture of the organization. This is a confront when the existing culture of the organization is faulty. The selection process is also likely to decrease the morale of the staffs who fail to capture the open positions.


Reference

Spector, B. (2010). Implementing organizational change: Theory into practice (2nd ed). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Prentice Hall


Published in Education
Tuesday, 10 December 2013 14:44

Domino Pizza

Domino Pizza


  Why Business Models Matter

            Whenever a business organization is established, it employs a particular business model in one way or another. Business models matter a lot since it describes the architecture and design of value creation, the delivery, and capture mechanisms that it employs.  The vital roles of a business model lies on defining the manner in, which an enterprise delivers value to its customers, engage customers to pay for such values, and converts the payments made to profits.  It, therefore, reflects the management hypothesis about what a customer wants, how a customer wants it, and how the business organization can organize to effectively meet those needs, get paid, and eventually make a profit.  


 Development in the world economy has changed the traditional equilibrium between the customer and supplier.  New communication and computing technology have opened new global trading regimes, which mean that customers have more choices, and supply alternatives are numerous.  These alternatives have amplified the need to consider new ways of addressing customers’ needs and capturing value for new products.


 SWOT Analysis

 Success or even the survival of a business organization cannot be taken for granted.   Organizations must always have the capability to adapt quickly to the changing economic times in order to survive.  There are a number of forces that influence changes that occur in a business organization. These forces include changes in technology, changes in the customers’ expectations, and alterations in the economy.  Changes in the economy influence a business organization to make changes that will sustain it through tough economic time. Changes in technology lead to the discovery of new ideas and products that influences the market and the growth of a business organization.  Changes in the customer’s expectations make an organization change its operations to fit the new demand from customers.  Customers will always expect quality goods and reasonable prices; therefore, a business organization must always access the nature of customers.


 References

Elsevier, (2009). Business Models: Business Strategy & Innovation. Retrieved From, http://www.bmcommunity.sitew.com/fs/Root/8jig8-businessmodelsbusinessstrategy.pdf   On May 29, 2013.

Scribd, (2008). Organizational Development and Change. Retrieved From, http://www.scribd.com/doc/9177627/Organisational-Change   On May 29, 2013.


Published in Business Studies

Aviation/Aerospace Marketing Plan:Gulfstream’s G650


Executive Summary

            The prevailing economic crisis has had a negative impact on private and business class flights, which have been redirected partly to the offers of low-cost carriers (Ferrell & Hartline, 2010). Fuel, pollution control, global economic woes, personnel cutbacks, and recurring safety lapses are the top five frustrations that are fueling the transition in business performance. This transition reflects the need for airlines to cut down air ticket prizes. However, this does not imply that if prizes are right the demand for service is zero. This is often the case especially when price advantage is counterbalanced by the effect of long hours that passengers spend in check-in desks, boarding queues, missed connections or delayed flights and others. Early initiatives planned to offer moderate-cost private flights have not proved effective. This was mainly because of the absence of an aircraft with great speed and passenger capacity. This is the advantage offered by Gulfstream's new G650 aircraft.


           This paper provides fundamental insights into the strategic marketing aspects of Gulfstream Aerospace Corporation based on a comprehensive assessment of its business structure, strategies, plans, performance, and initiatives with respect to its new flight model G650. The plan includes an insightful SWOT analysis, giving insights into the company’s internal and external business environment, in terms of the strengths and weaknesses. In addition, the potential opportunities for growth and the threats that exist in the external business environment are examined.


Situational Analysis

Company

Gulfstream Aerospace Corporation is a subsidiary aircraft company that is based in Falls Church, Virginia (Gulfstream, 2012). It is wholly-owned by General Dynamics, and designs, manufactures, sells, and services the most technologically-advanced commercial-jet aircraft. The company has designed and manufactured 2,000 and more aircrafts since 1958. To serve the transportation needs of its customers, Gulfstream manufacturers a comprehensive line of aircrafts, consisting of high-speed, long-range, and large cabin aircrafts. In addition to the production of aircrafts, the company also offers ownership service through pre-owned aircraft sales. The company provides employment to 12,500 people and more across 12 major locations, in the world.  Gulfstream Aerospace Corporation is a leader in aviation equipment, combat vehicles, marine components, information technology, and, armaments and munitions.


General Dynamics is divided into four business segments including information systems and technology, Marine Systems, Combat Systems, and Aerospace (Gulfstream, 2012). Every group is a market leader in the markets it operates, due to careful development of a profile of relevant and affordable products and services. Each segment has got many business units within it. For instance, aerospace two units: Gulfstream and Jet Aviation.


In terms of marketing strategies, the organization implements its strategies in the framework of a balanced model of business, which gives leaders of the various business units a high-level operational flexibility. This allows the various units to stay close to their customers and be responsive to dynamic trends of customer needs and the opportunities arising from advances in technology.  Each unit is independent with respect to administrative services. This includes management of human resource, marketing, supply chain, and business development. The company’s unit leaders are responsible for capital allocation and setting the direction of business, in terms of fulfilling financial, regulatory, and legal responsibilities efficiently (Thomson & Martin, 2010). The individual units understand the requirements of the customer. They respond to those needs through the provision of a portfolio of relevant, market-leading, and affordable services and products.


Corporate Social Responsibility

In terms of corporate social responsibility, Gulfstream conducts its business in accordance to the standards of integrity in every country where it conducts business (Gulfstream, 2012). The airline industry has a lot of impact on the environment (Ferrell & Hartline, 2010). Therefore, the company must engage in corporate social responsibility activities. It must reduce the level of carbon dioxide emissions by increasing fuel efficiency. In addition, corporate social responsibility code is vital in ensuring that employees act in consistently, in accordance with Gulfstream’s values so as to protect the reputation of the company. Gulfstream holds the belief that integrity creates confidence in customers, employees, stakeholders, suppliers, and the community


Competitive Market Analysis

The sector involves commercial and defense aircrafts (Karsten, Frank, Pearsly, & Fuchigami, 2012). Commercial aircrafts are those that have 100 seats and over while jets are those that have a capacity of less than 100 seats. Defense and space equipments include aircraft and arsenal, and satellites and launching pads. Commercial planes are of significant interest to this strategy. Passenger miles have an impact on the production of airplanes. Airplane profitability also has a direct association with the production of planes. In the commercial aircraft, the main competitors are

  • ·Boeing
  • ·Airbus
  • ·Gulfstream
  • ·Embracer
  • ·Bombardier

Boeing

Boeing has been the leader in the manufacture of commercial jet for several decades (Karsten, Frank, Pearsly, & Fuchigami, 2012). It merged with McDonnell Douglas, in 1996, and became the second largest defense contractor in 2000. It is the largest satellite manufacturer, in the space industry.

Airbus

It was founded in 1970. Boeing is its largest commercial competitor, in terms of commercial jet manufacturing (Karsten, Frank, Pearsly, & Fuchigami, 2012). In 2001, it controlled 55% of the large-capacity passenger aircraft.


Bombardier

Bombardier is the world’s leading manufacturer of small planes. It is based in Canada and makes jets with capacity of 25-90 seats (Karsten, Frank, Pearsly, & Fuchigami, 2012). It controls 36% of the world market for business in jets.

Embraer

It is a company founded in Brazil. It has 11,000 employees. Historically, its planes have a capacity of 30-50 passenger seats (Karsten, Frank, Pearsly, & Fuchigami, 2012). It is currently developing advanced jetliner family with 70-110 seat capacity.


Customer Analysis

In considering factors about the customer, it is fundamental to analyze passenger traffic. These questions are essential: Where do people want to fly? Why do they want to travel? How much can they afford or are they willing to pay? Technology is also a fundamental factor for consideration. Due to technology, there are changing trends in consumer demand. New technology has spurred higher seat aircraft. Older aircrafts are being eliminated due to regulations concerning noise.


External Business Environment

In all sectors, companies are affected by the environments in which they conduct business. Several factors can influence the company’s performance. If managers have knowledge of what is happening in the society, they are better placed to make the right decisions. However, there are also factors that place the company at risk of bankruptcy.  The business performance of Gulfstream is dependent on many factors in the external environment.


Economic Factors

The interest rates influence the behavior of consumers (Ferrell & Hartline, 2010). In the recent past, the United States has had an economic downturn. Due to variable interest rates, the companies went into financial distress. Companies are still recovering from the impact of inflation. Customers are more likely to save than spend because of that effect. Currency rates are also very fundamental. This is because the purchasing power of the customer is dependent on it.  Stock prices also have a significant impact on the financial stability of a company.


Technologic Influence

The technological advances are a vital aspect of the success of Gulfstream. This means that all products manufactured by Gulfstream must be modern to gain competitive advantage. Reliability, performance, and comfort are features of Gulfstream that maintain the company’s reputation.  The company must invest in technology and recognize the effect of change in the products of its rival companies. In this sense, research and development is a fundamental component of competition in the aircraft manufacturing industry.


Social and Cultural Factors

The trend I social developments also affect the business prospects of Gulfstream (Ferrell & Hartline, 2010). The population is aging fast, and trends of their needs are evolving at the same pace. This implies that Gulfstream may have to use much effort on how their planes are comfortable because aging population is more influenced by that feature than young people.  In addition, the language or configuration relevant will vary depending on the location from which the customer originates. Gulfstream has a broad range of products based on the consideration of customer characteristics including origin, age, beliefs, and mentality. To provide products that meet diverse consumer needs, Gulfstream manufactures exceptional planes for business, personal use, and emergency services. In addition, the company also provides rental planes for specific functions in many countries in which it operates. In order to be successful, the company must have knowledge of the cultural and social environment.


Political Factors

The policies made by various governments also affect business activities. Since September 11, 2001, political influence has had a great impact on the airline sector (Thomson & Martin, 2010). Because of security, governments are introducing policies, laws, and regulations that have a direct impact on the performance on the airline companies. This is to make sure that travelers reach their destinations safely. The planes must comply with regulations and standards put in place by the government. Terrorism and other security problems have had an impact on Gulfstream, in terms of sales.  The company must ensure that it builds planes that protect the safety of the passengers.


SWOT Analysis

 Strengths

Gulfstream is a part of General Dynamics and, hence, is part of a great brand that constructs not only airplanes, but also marine, armaments, and vehicle equipment that are regarded as technologically-advanced and high-quality products (Gulfstream, 2012). This accords Gulfstream the advantage to be recognized as part of a large respectable company.  G650 is an iconic product in terms of culture, speed, innovation, class, and luxury.  Through technological improvement, Gulfstream has been making state-of-the-art aircrafts, which consumes less fuel. Gulfstream’s parent company, General Dynamics, is a global leader in aircraft and other products. Observed from a technological point of view, Gulfstream has a lot of resources. In 2013, the company is making technological advances in structures, fuel efficiency, and aerodynamics.


Weaknesses

The airline industry was hard-hit during the recession. Due to the rising prices of gases and reduced consumption power, people did not fly as much as often do. For Gulfstream, the company had to lay off some of the employees. It addition, the company witnessed a drop in its earnings, in line with the forecasts that had been made projected following the recession. The other weakness is that Gulfstream is unable to compete with market giants such as Boeing and Airbus because it produces jets only at the moment. The giant companies are more diversified than Gulfstream because they make passenger airplanes that carry a higher number of people than Gulfstream.


Opportunities

Gulfstream invests money in research and development heavily (Gulfstream, 2012). Innovation is the central line of strategic development as the company seeks to develop efficient technologies that allow it to produce aircrafts at low prices while making them efficient operating at high speeds. The company is in the process of diversifying their line of aircrafts. In terms of the current inventions, G650 is their latest innovation of business jets. This latest model competes with the great brands of Airbus and Boeing and exerts pressure on them to produce aircrafts that match the technological advances of Gulfstream, and to reduce fuel costs because their innovations are unaffordable and lurking behind. In addition to low fuel costs and use of advanced materials, Gulfstream also focuses on reducing noise and emissions.  The rise of Gulfstream implies a reduction in market share for both Airbus and Boeing. Innovation makes the company more competitive than its competitors. This opens the way for the possibility of price wars taking place among companies in the industry.


Threats

Gulfstream is focused in improving its air fleet and establishing new ways to be fuel efficient (Gulfstream, 2012). This implies that the company’s investment in research and development is overwhelming. The company is reinvesting a lot of money and so is not making much profit in the end. This is an ideal strategy for the future, but in the short term it is unattractive.  Gulfstream has become competitive with the industry’s best corporations that claim a large market share. It challenges these companies in terms of technological innovations. Because of the entry of additional small-scale companies such as the United Aircraft Corporation and Avic Aircraft competition is starting to catch up.  In addition, the nature of competition in the air transport industry causes fear among employees because of the potential lay off.


The Five forces model

Gulfstream is involved in a business sector where threats to entry are high. Large companies have established base in the sector and supply the sector with services almost entirely. It is almost impossible for a new company to enter the sector.  The brands of large companies are popular and have technological support to maintain their position.

In the airplane sector, substitutes are many. Every product has its own function in the industry. For instance, there are no substitutes for large passenger commercial transport. Therefore, the threat to Gulfstream is an aircraft with similar specifications constructed by another company.


In the airline industry, buyers have a moderate bargaining power. There are not many manufacturers are so customers do not have much choice on the products.  However, the manufacture of airplanes has a high cost, but this may be offset by relatively high margins. Therefore, a company will have to ensure competitive if it is to retain its customers.

In the same way as customers, suppliers have a relatively moderate power. Suppliers would want to maintain their customer by ensuring good relationship.

Rivals are several. Airbus, Boeing, Bombardier, and Embraer are some of the companies that are rivals of Gulfstream. It has to try all means to keep its customers because private jets are not popular purchases. In this industry, it is difficult to gain a customer than to maintain. Sufficient and appropriate marketing must be done to ensure customer satisfaction.


Objectives of Marketing Plan

The Objective of Gulfstream’s strategic marketing plan is to manage and utilize the company’s resources (facilities, finances, staff, reputation, and staff) to achieve effectiveness, growth, and profitability.

Short-Term Objectives

  1. To develop a system-wide master plan for G650’s future utilization
  2. Re-organize the organization to engage executive and lower level staff
  3. Launch a measurement and reporting system that is organization-wide

Differentiation and Positioning Strategies

The world aerospace sector is at an optimally promising point in time where it is experiencing a rising demand for corporate jet and commercial aircraft (Karsten, Frank, Pearsly, & Fuchigami, 2012). For the primes such as Boeing and Airbus, it is a boom-time environment. The rising demand is driving opportunities for growth for longer components, systems, and suppliers across the supply chain.  The economy is rebounding from the recession, presenting an opportunity for private firms to make investments in the airspace sector so as to benefit the favorable market characteristics.  However, there are challenges that companies must overcome.

  1. Create winning strategies for investment in a consolidating market
  2. Compete for business opportunity against the principal industry players, who are aggressive and acquisitive.

Strategies

Value Pricing

Industrial consolidation occurs and gives rise to increased supplier power. In this situation, price optimization may be a powerful driver of value, which is often underutilized. Customer segmentation that is accurate and accurate analysis of margin data can identify pricing practices that are suboptimal and vital upside potential.


New Market Entry

A principal portion of future demand will originate fromfuture demands in global markets. Therefore, firms will require a keen understanding of airline customer needs in the new regions. Companies that can tailor their products and services to meet these needs have the upper hand to capture new markets. These needs include product, cost, performance, sales channel, and others.


Product Innovation

The aerospace industry is engineering driven. Significant benefits can be gained through consideration of customer needs applying the outside-in approach to the development of product. Detailed field research, fact-based customer segmentation, and analytical techniques that are effective such as conjoint analysis are instrumental in uncovering valuable feature gaps, in the market.


New Business Models

In some instances of fierce competition, moving beyond the company’s traditional model can result in an increased potential for value creation. This means going beyond just changing locations of manufacturing plants. For example, assets that are being removed from larger entities may be very useful when removed from their parent companies (data sets or software may be fundamental in this respect). Firms must identify and take advantage of these opportunities early in the process. Conducting a deep customer research can help to validate break-out strategies.


Marketing Strategy

Product

In the aerospace industry, the product strategy is based on the consideration of the following items: design, range, quality, features, and brand name. The features exhibited by a product are not significant, but the benefits that the product offer. Therefore, Gulfstream must develop products that have benefits to the client.

Place

Place is determined by the distribution channels, methods of distribution, location, and coverage. In terms of place, flight entertainment, baggage handling, facilities at the airport, meal service, and delivery of service are important factors for Gulfstream to consider.


Price

The price strategy may be implemented as list price, discounts, commission, surcharges, and extras. Therefore, Gulfstream must consider options including premium pricing, value for money, cheap value pricing, low cost pricing, and fax fares, in its pricing functions. This depends on the target customers.


Promotion

Promotion is affected by advertising, salesmanship, publicity, and advertising (Flouris & Dostaler, 2007). For instance, airlines must include in their advertisements the image of the country, tourist attractions, scenic beauty, and rich heritage to attract tourist. The public relations officer, travel agents, and receptionist are vital agents in publicizing the aerospace business. Travel agents, frontline staff, and tour operators are essential in promoting airlines business.


Implementation and Control

This marketing strategy will be implemented through the organizational culture (Ferrell & Hartline, 2010). In this approach, the marketing strategy is rolled out as part of the general mission and vision of Gulfstream (Phillips & Kaps, 2005). The strategy is embedded or integrated in the company’s culture. The company’s top executives manage the company’s culture to ensure that the entire group of employees is well informed of the culture. This approach to implementation and control ensures ownership of the culture by eliminating the structures that act as barriers between the implementers and strategists. The company-wide commitment to the organizational goals is increased. In addition, it promotes empowerment of employees. Through cultural development, marketing implementation is much easy to achieve.


Marketing Control Framework

Input Controls

These are actions that are taken before the implementation of the marketing strategy (Ferrell & Hartline, 2010).

  • Employee recruitment, selection, and training processes
  • Human resource allocations
  • Research and development expenditures
  • Capital outlays
  • Allocation of financial resources

Process Controls

These are actions taken at the course of strategy implementation process.

  • Employee compensation and evaluation systems
  • Employee empowerment
  • Management commitment to employees
  • Management commitment to the marketing plan
  • Internal communication programs

Output controls

These are evaluated after strategy implementation. They include

  • Formal performance standards (market share, sales, profitability)
  • Marketing audits

Timing of Implementation Activities

Activities

Month

 

June

Jul

Aug

Sep

Product Activities

       

Pricing Activities

       

Distribution

       

Promotion

       

References

Ferrell, O. & Hartline, M. (2010) “Marketing Strategy (5th ed.)” Mason, OH: Cengage

Flouris, T. & Dostaler, I. (2007) “Strategic Management as a Key to Educating the New Aviation Professional” International Journal of Professional Aviation Training & Testing Research, 1(1):1-13

Gulfstream (2012) “Gulfstream: The World’s most advanced Business Jet Aircraft” www.gulfstream.com

Karsten, K., Frank, N., Pearsly, M., & Fuchigami, S. (2012) “Aesrospace Sector Analysis”

Phillips, E. & Kaps, R. (2005) “Defining aviation management” Collegiate Aviation Review, 23(1): 65

Thomson, J. & Martin, F. (2010) “Strategic Management” Mason, OH: Cengage


Published in Business Studies
Tuesday, 10 December 2013 14:24

Annotated Bibliography

Annotated Bibliography


Zoeller, R. (2008). Lifestyle and the risk of cardiovascular disease in women: Is physical activity an equal opportunity benefactor? American Journal of Lifestyle Medicine, 2(3), 219-226.

The study conducted was based on the cardiovascular disease which is estimated to be the highest disease killer of women in the United States. The study estimated that about 36.6 % of women who are older than 20 years have certain infections that are related to cardiovascular disease. The study concluded that regular activities of physical moderate intensity like brisk walking pose a great threat in women simply because it reduces the risk of women being affected by mortality in women and cardiovascular disease condition. It concludes that there is a pressing need in the research so as to study the healthcare benefits of regular physical activity in women. Limitations of this study are that it lacks clear vigorous exercise. It also lacks the dose response relationship relevant for cardiovascular and exercise intensity which may be the result which develops interventional and epidemiologic studies. There was limited evidence in that study that proved and suggests the presence of moderate intensity activities which are responsible in lowering the systolic blood pressure in women.


Li, T., Rana, J., Manson, J., Willett, W., Stampfer, M., Colditz, G., & ... Hu, F. (2006). Obesity    as compared with physical activity in predicting risk of coronary heart disease in women.       Circulation, 113(4), 499-506.

This study compares the obesity and physical inactivity as predictors of (CHD) coronary heart disease risk which is believed to remain unsettled. It aimed at comparing the relevance in this case where a group of more than 88000 women between the age of 30 and 60 years of age. The study reveals that women in this study did not have cancer and cardiovascular disease at the baseline. The study concludes that physical inactivity and obesity independently plays a role in the development of CHD in women who are in the gap of 30 years and 60 years. The limitation of the study is that the data collected underscored the relevance of regular physical activity and maintaining a healthy weight in preventing CHD.


Carnethon, M. (2009). Physical Activity and Cardiovascular Disease: How Much is Enough?.       American Journal of Lifestyle Medicine, 3(1 Suppl), 44S-49S

The study reviews the role played by physical activity in the primary prevention of cardiovascular (CV) diseases. This connects to the particular attention that is focused by the amount of physical activity and intensity required to develop women health. The study indicates the inverse linear dose response that relates to the amount of physical activity and mortality, CAD incidence, total CV disease, and cause mortality. The study concludes that moderate activity that relates to brisk walking just for 30 minutes to 1 hour is related with certain significant reductions in mortality and incidence of CV disease. The limitation of the study is the minimal effective dose which is unclear during the study. It is also clear that the physical activity needed does not come out clear because it should not be vigorous to benefit health as portrayed during the study.


Bassuk, S., & Manson, J. (2010). Physical activity and cardiovascular disease prevention in  women: a review of the epidemiologic evidence. Nutrition, Metabolism, And Cardiovascular Diseases: NMCD, 20(6), 467-473

This study is focused about epidemiological studies, which argue that, as little as half an hour of moderate intensity physical activity in a given day can develop some signs that lower the risk of developing conditions of cardiovascular disease in women. The study concludes that sedentary individuals who in some instance develop signs of physically active even to those who are older ages derive cardiovascular benefits. It is clear that physical activity occurs to slow the progression and initiation of CVD through salutary effects. The study concludes that public health initiatives that promote moderate increase in physical activity that may balance between feasibility and efficacy so as to improve cardiovascular health in sedentary populations. Limitations of this study are that salutary effects are not effective due to the adiposity and also on lipids, blood pressure, glycemic control, inflammatory defense systems, and insulin sensitivity.


Lee, I., Rexrode, K., Cook, N., Manson, J., & Buring, J. (2001). "Physical activity and coronary   heart disease in women: is "no pain, no gain" passé?." JAMA: The Journal Of The    American Medical Association 285, no. 11: 1447-1454

The study focuses on the physical activity and coronary heart disease present in women. It looks at the physical activeness in women that are believed to lower the coronary heart disease (CHD) rates as compared to the inactive women for that case. In this study, the authors have decided to examine the relation that exists between CHD among women, specifically investigating walking, and physical activity including those at high risk for CHD. The study concludes that the date used indicate that even light to moderate activity is slightly associated with lower CHD rates in women. It is true that at least 60 minutes of walking per week predict lower risk. The study also indicated that the inverse association with physical activity is present in women at high risk at CHD for those overweight women. Limitation of the study is that it did not include a good sample in conducting its study.


Brown, W., Burton, N., & Rowan, P. (2007). Updating the evidence on physical activity and       health in women. American Journal Of Preventive Medicine, 33(5), 404-411.

The narrative is a composition of review updates evidence from the last 10 years on physical activity that contributes to the study of prevention of cancer, diabetes, and cardiovascular in women. It is a study that coherently developed and included a number of published studies from 1997 to 2006. The study concluded that there is strong evidence that exist in the physical activity simply because it plays a role in the primary prevention of cancer, some diabetes, and cardiovascular conditions in women. Limitations of the study are that it did not have the additional health benefits developed from vigorous intensity physical activity that could have been achieved from the moderate intensity physical activity or walking conditions.


Mendis, S., Puska, P., & Norrving, B. (2011). Global Atlas on Cardiovascular Disease       Prevention and Control. Stylus Pub Llc

The study indicates that individuals and government in the society has a role in the reduction of the socioeconomic and health burden that is caused by cardiovascular disease. These groups can take the action of curbing the aspect of CVD risk in women and at the end they will have saved a lot of things. It concludes that cardiovascular disease (CVD) still remains of the biggest cause of deaths in the world for women. It indicates that around 17 million people in 2008 died from CVD where 82 percent of people who died occurred from middle and low-income settings. The limitation of the study in this case is based on the fact that it did not provide a baseline for monitoring of trends and at the same time assessing progress developed by countries affected by the cardiovascular situation.


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