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Items filtered by date: November 2013

Friday, 29 November 2013 03:34

Challenges in Providing Adequate Healthcare

Challenges in Providing Adequate Healthcare

The issue of healthcare services in underdeveloped countries has remained a misery. There are a number of challenges that relates to providing adequate health care in most countries and especially in the underdeveloped countries. Lack of quality and required information technology is a major problem in the current health care industry. Most underdeveloped countries lack required information and technology system requirements required in providing relevant health services. This is a challenge that poses problems in health care professionals simply because nurses are unable to diagnosis their patients in the required manner. Most health care facilities have a problem in implementing the required technology for serving patients. Vital technology facilities miss in underdeveloped health care countries something that is of challenge to professionals in handling healthcare problems, (Feldstein, 2009).

Apart from lack of required technology underdeveloped countries face the challenge of unqualified personnel in the healthcare industry. Most of these countries operate with fewer qualified professionals who are unable to provide required health care services to patients. The level of qualified and experts nurses and other healthcare professionals in underdeveloped countries is not enough to serve and provide the community with required health care services. This is a problem that affects these countries simply because the problem of health care is a challenge in most countries. Lack of qualified health care professionals in underdeveloped countries is brought by the fact that learners have failed to enroll in nursing healthcare courses or those who learn seek jobs in countries that pay them accordingly, (Tae, 2009).

Strategies in Addressing These Challenges

Lack of professionals in these countries can be addressed by encouraging learners in enrolling, in healthcare courses. Those who enroll and complete their academics should be employed and compensated in accordance so as to increase the number of qualified professionals. This is to take care of patients who are in need of adequate professional healthcare services. Compensating nurses and professionals in healthcare services will help increase the number of students who go for nursing courses and stick in the nursing industry thus solve the problem of serving patients who are in need of services. Another strategy is seeking help from developed countries and implements technology in these health care facilities, (Feldstein, 2009).

Advocating for Health

Nurses should help patients understand the relevance in adherence, in healthcare practices. Most patients do not adhere to prescriptions and rules they are given by professionals. It will only require experts to engage in counseling like a strategy that will help them in educating patients in the importance of taking what they are given into account and following the expectations of nurses. This will help develop an environment where patients get the right measures and as a result, allow proper treatment from nurses. This is an effective strategy because it will help and ensure patients get the correct medication and follow the prescriptions hence become healed. Counseling patients and advising them to adhere to prescriptions they are given will help develop or create an environment that is suitable in handling patients healthcare problems and challenges of healthcare in the society environment, (Tae, 2009).


Feldstein, M. (2009). The global impact of America’s health care debate. Retrieved from, http://www.projectsyndicate.org/commentary/feldstein15/English, On May 14, 2013

Tae, M. (2009). How changes in medical technology affect health care costs. Retrieved from, http://www.opednews.com/articles/How-Changes- in-Medical-Tec-by-Matthew-Tae-090209-748.html, On May 14, 2013

Published in Nursing
Friday, 29 November 2013 03:25

Sustainable Tourism

Sustainable Tourism


Tourism is an activity that appears to have grown by almost 25 % in the past ten years. Tourism accounts for about ten percent of the economic activity in the world, and it is also a generator of employment. Sustainable tourism is referred to as tourism attempting to make as low on impact on the local and environmental culture as possible while it helps to generate future employment for the local people. In Hawaii tourism is considered as the main generator of revenue in its economy. Hawaii is a state in United Sates that comprise of 8 islands known as Kauai, Niihau, Hawaii, Kahoolawe, Oahu, Lanai, Molokai, and Maui. The tropical climates in the islands and also beautiful scenery have made the Hawaii a very attractive tourist destination (Hawaii Tourism Authority 2010). The multi cultural society has also resulted to a rich cultural diversity. This case study will identify the principal problems and challenges that are facing Hawaii tourism destination authorities and management organizations in regards to sustainable development.  The paper will also analyze and critique measures, which have been put in place to so that to develop and implement sustainable tourism in Hawaii.

Issues and challenges

According to the World Tourism organization, it states that any type of tourism destination must develop a sustainable tourism guidelines and policies so that to strike a balance between economic, social, cultural, and environmental aspects of tourism in order for the environmental resources to be utilized efficiently. Hawaii tourism should ensure that it incorporates all of the aspects so that it can be effective. Sustainable tourism aims at ensuring that development brings a positive experience to tourists, tourism companies, and local people.

There are various problems and challenges that are facing tourism in Hawaii which include transportation, host culture, communication, safety and security, natural resources, work force development, tourism product development, research and planning, and marketing.


The geographical isolation of Hawaii tends to present a major transportation challenge to the state. These are challenges that are significant because the tourists in Hawaii are very dependent on all modes of transportation services including land, sea, and air when getting from and to Hawaii and also while travelling within islands. There is a need for more ferries so that to add to the existing system which will provide a viable alternative for the future travel within the islands (Picard, & Robinson, 2006). Being an island state, Hawaii tends to rely heavily on transport services, which are provided by air carries and airport facilities and infrastructure. Highways and harbors are also essential facilities for facilitating travel within Hawaii. In planning to alleviate traffic congestion and the aging facilities, it will help in easing travel for visitors and also residents in Hawaii.


Tourism being the primary economic activity in Hawaii makes everyone a stakeholder in Hawaii tourism including private business, visitors, residents, and the government. In order for tourism to be successful, all the stakeholders should feel that their feelings and issues are understood and understand and appreciate the issues and concerns of other stakeholders. Problems faced in communication include ensuring opportunities for ongoing dialogue, involvement in tourism matters, and participation by all the stakeholders (McKecher, 2003). Another challenge is ensuring that the information about the impacts, benefits, and concerns of tourism are consistently and accurately communicate to all of the stakeholders. Another problem with communication is ensuring consistency, availability, and accuracy of information provided about the tourism destination.


In order to have a successful sustainable tourism destination, it should honor the Hawaii culture, their history, and its people. The culture should also be able to protect the natural environment and involve local communities’ participation. There are many different cultures in Hawaii, but the native Hawaiians are what make Hawaii unique and also what make them different from other destinations. Native Hawaiian culture has been promoted to attract visitors and most Hawaiians feel alienated by the visitor industry (Hawaii Tourism Authority 2010). The Native Hawaiians culture is used in marketing campaigns even without consultation that can result to misleading and inaccurate portrayals. The challenge that Hawaii authorities and management companies are facing is ensuring a stronger relationship between the visitor industry and also the native Hawaiian community. It also faces the challenge of ensuring accurate portrayal of the Hawaiian culture and perpetuation and respecting the state’s culture.  

                        Safety and security

With the attack that happened on September 11 2001, it resulted to the need for increased security. The problems that the authority is facing are increasing the stricter travel policies and concerns for personal safety, which has resulted to reduced business travel and leisure in Hawaii. Therefore, the challenge that the authorities are faced with is ensuring that they provide adequate resources for fighting crimes (Griffins, & Williams, 2012). With the increase of tourism in Hawaii, a problem that has evolved is crimes and drug use. With persistent of this trend, it is likely to result to security becoming deterrent for visitors. Therefore, the challenge that the management organizations and authorities are facing are ways of preventing drug use and solicitation that impact visitor expenditure.

                       Tourism product development

Tourism product comprise of all the various elements that contribute to the experience of the destination. This includes accommodations, utilities, attractions, and public infrastructure. Product development is an essential element of Hawaii tourism, and it plays a vital role in the growth of the tourism industry. However, the challenge of Hawaii tourism is that it fails to have adequate private and public infrastructures like roads and restrooms that usually make the tourists stay more uncomfortable. Some of these infrastructures are also poorly maintained providing tourist unsightly attraction and uncomfortable feeling when tourists happen to visit Hawaii. For sustainable development, the authorities encounter the challenge of providing accommodation that meets the client’s needs so that they can remain competitive and meet the targets of the market (McKecher, 2003).

                   Natural resources

The diverse array of natural resources including trails, parks, waterfall, and beaches are attributes which make the islands wonderful places and attractive destinations for tourists to visit. Some problems that can be observed from these resources include factors like parking, signage, accessibility and other amenities which impact the overall condition and quality of the natural resources in Hawaii (Hawkins, et al 2012). The problem with the facilities is that they are not managed properly, and there is also a shortage of professionals who may guide the tourists resulting to poor delivery of services resulting to dissatisfaction of visitors when they are in Hawaii. This is a problem that is facing the authorities and management organizations as they should ensure that they offer quality services so that to ensure that visitors come back.

                           Measures for sustainable tourism

There are various measures that Hawaii tourism industry have put in place so that to ensure that it solves the problems that it has been facing and also to provide sustainable tourism. The measures that have been considered are based on economic sustainability, ecological sustainability, cultural sustainability, and local sustainability. Through implementing the measures, they will help in maintaining sustainable tourism.

                 Economic sustainability

Economic sustainability refers to generating prosperity in different levels in the society and addressing the cost of all economic activities. There are various economically sustainable practices that Hawaii has put in place. In order to have sustainable tourism, access to the destination is extremely essential (Hawaii Tourism Authority 2010). There are various major challenges that Hawaii has encountered in regards to access to its products. Maintenance of adequate amount of airlift to the islands is an issue because of the increase in volatility of the airline industry. The port and airport facilities are also aging, and they are unable to adequately cater to the needs of the growing industry.

The impact of the facilities has negatively impacted the experience of the visitors.  In order to allow economic sustainability, the authorities have attracted more direct flights to Hawaii and increased the number of seats that are available on the international and domestic flights. Measures have also been put to improve inter island transportation services by the new ferry system (Griffins, & Williams, 2012). In relation to marketing, Hawaii authorities have increased visitors spending rather than increased visitor arrival as they have realized that accommodation facilities are limited.

Marketing efforts have been segmented to cater for the different needs and conditions of specific geographic markets like Latin America, Europe, Asia, and Japan. In order for tourists to have unique and new experiences, the tourism authorities have added many different tourism products. In addressing these issues, the authorities have done thorough research and planning so that they can keep up with the events and trends that are affecting the industry (Ongley, 2004). In ensuring communication, Hawaii tourism authority has put measures that raise awareness, increase participation, knowledge, interaction, and collaboration among all stakeholders.

                        Cultural sustainability

Cultural sustainability should be able to increase the control which people usually have over their lives and coincide with the values and cultures of the affected community and strengthen the community identity (McKecher, 2003). In order to have a sustainable development, it is necessary to recognize and support the culture and identity of the people. The uniqueness of Hawaii is built on the value placed on the native culture. The issue encountered by the authorities is that the native Hawaiians tend to believe that their cultural integrity is compromised because of the increase in the number of tourists who are visiting the island.

In order to deal with this issue, the authority has identified certain ways of sustaining and honoring the Hawaiian culture (Hawaii Tourism Authority 2010). This is through strengthening the relationship that exists between the visitor industry and Hawaiian community. It has also put measures to nurture the culture through creating visitor experience, marketing programs, and activities that are accurate and respectful. In protecting the native culture and traditional knowledge, the Hawaiian craftsmen, artists, and musicians have been incorporated as some o the key stakeholders in the development of tourism and also during decision making because they are responsible of keeping Hawaiian culture alive.

                                Ecological sustainability

Ecological sustainability refers to conserving and managing resources and mostly the resources that are non renewable (McKecher, 2003). This requires the action of conserving natural heritage and biological diversity. Hawaii tourism authority has ensured that it has placed emphasis on the restoration and upkeep of the national parks, trails, waterfall, and beaches (Hawkins, et al 2012).  The authority has embarked on initiatives so that to find methods for maintaining, improving, and repairing the natural resources. The initiatives include charging user and entry fee and also provision of security in sites so that they can regulate the activities of the tourists.

Another aspect is the identification and promotion of responsible and acceptable tourist behaviors. This is an essential aspect which the authorities have focused on so that to ensure that the visitors enjoy the natural resources without destroying them (World Tourism Organization 2004). In order to ensure responsible behaviors, the authorities have put an initiative that is aimed at raising awareness about acceptable and responsible utilization of the natural resources in Hawaii. This is an initiative that is targeted to all stakeholders who are involved, and it also focus on educating stakeholders about recycling, energy and water conservation practices, safety condition for beaches and hiking trails.

                 Local sustainability

Local sustainability should be designed in order for the local community to benefit from the tourism activities (McKecher, 2003). Local sustainability is extremely essential in ensuring that benefits derived from tourism activities are maintained in the local community. The local community should be involved in tourism sustainability. In order to involve the community in sustainability, the tourism authority has provided people with employment and opportunities for advancement to the local within the industry (Hawaii Tourism Authority 2010). In ensuring that the community benefits and contributes to tourism are having outreach programs so that to educate the community members about the opportunities they have in the industry. The opportunities that are available for the locals in the community are providing agricultural products to restaurants and hotels, arts and crafts, cultural practitioners, and musicians.

The authority has also offered sponsorship for various initiatives and internship programs that are organized by the locals which offer certain opportunities in the industry. There are also certain measures put in place to offer organized activities and programs that are aimed at motivating the local workforce.

             Specific measures to achieve sustainability

           Code of conduct

Hawaii has established guidelines and code of conducts that provide a mechanism that they have used in setting out clear expectations and requirements of the tourists, stakeholders, and enterprises without back up of regulations and laws. The code and guidelines are statements that are set out clearly those actions which are appropriate and not appropriate in certain circumstances (Honey, 2002). The aim of the guidelines and codes are to exercise control and also encourage every person to abide by the common approach. In order to ensure that every stakeholder is aware of the codes and guidelines, Hawaii presents the instructions on their websites, and they are also promoted through media. Codes and guidelines are usually produces as a way of promoting a good practice, and they form a tool for self regulation in the tourism sector (Weaver, 2012).

                    Auditing and reporting

In ensuring sustainability, Hawaii ensures that it reports the outcome of its efforts in managing the impacts of sustainability. Reporting and auditing help in sharing the information with stakeholder. Through having a sustainability reporting framework, it has enabled the tourism enterprise and all the stakeholders in communicating actions that are taken so that to improve social, economic, and environmental performance (UNEP 2005). Hawaii uses reporting in maintain and strengthening their credibility, promoting market advantage, engaging their customers, and gaining benefit from any successes.  Auditing is used as an internal management tool for improving performance in Hawaii tourism industry.


Regulations and legislations are tools that are inter related used  in strengthening sustainability by setting up requirements that are enforceable and compulsory and results to penalties if they are not met. In order to have success in tourism sustainability, Hawaii tourism has established regulations that are clear, applicable, and relevant in relation to compliance and capable of being applied. A sensible approach that Hawaii has used is having legislation in place which support and enable sustainability of tourism, and it gives authority to act.

The authority also has clear and enforceable regulations, which are supported by the appropriate licensing where it is necessary so that to ensure minimum standards (Hawaii Tourism Authority 2010). The important areas that are addressed by the legislation are the powers and responsibilities of certain bodies such as the authority of protected area bodies to promote tourism. It also addresses the ability of certain stakeholders in engaging in sustainable tourism. Hawaii legislation strengthens and clarifies the communities and individual land rights. It allows conditions to be attached which encourage or require land and resources to be used in a manner that is conducive to sustainable tourism.

Stakeholder analysis

In order to have sustainable development in the tourism industry, it is essential to bring together a wide range of the stakeholders in developing and managing tourism in a manner that is sustainable. The government should seek to develop the structures that aim at engaging stakeholders in the formulation of policies and strategies for sustainable tourism and ensuring effective coordination of actions and ongoing dialogue between all the stakeholders (Weaver, 2012). The stakeholders in Hawaii have developed permanent structures, which ensure coordination and temporary working structures that are needed in formulation stages of the policies. There are certain initiatives that Hawaii has introduced so that to develop sustainable tourism that is based on state’s historical heritage attractions and high quality natural environment.

The right structures for tourism stakeholders and ministries have been put to work together at the local and state level so that it can achieve its goal. There is a specific tourism cabinet that has been developed including the secretaries for tourism, finance, justice, arts and culture, security, environment and natural resources, and transport and public utilities (McClure, et al 2008). In the tourism institute, there are certain separate units that are dedicated to the environment development and the state development. In the units, there are commissions that have been established and the tourism institute provides technical assistance and also training to the commissions. In order to have a sustainable approach to development in tourism, there is a necessity for structures which enable representatives of nongovernmental and local authorities interests to be involved in the implementation and formulation of the tourism strategies and policies (Griffins, & Williams, 2012).

Hawaii government has ensured that they have established and managed these structures. This has been achieved by the government agencies like tourist boards and permanent tourism councils which are advisory and discussion bodies. Hawaii has established destination management organizations at the local level. This is the partnership between the private sector and the local government (World Tourism Organization 2004). The main responsibility of the partnership is the promotion and management of tourism, and they also address development aspects. It is the responsibility of the organizations to take full responsibility of the environment and social dimensions of sustainability through ensuring representation of the environmental and local community interests in the governing bodies.


The movement towards tourism sustainability is a long term goal, and changes in the tourism sector require be outlines in a strategic plan of sustainable tourism. Sustainability refers to thinking about the long term impacts and benefits. Hawaii has a strategic plan for sustainable tourism, which has helped the state in moving towards sustainable tourism.  From the case study, it indicates that Hawaii is in the right path for sustainable tourism. The challenges and issues that Hawaii is facing have enabled the tourism industry to develop strategies that ensure sustainable tourism. Hawaii tourism sustainability indicates that sustainability is built on local, cultural, ecological, and economic sustainability. This study has indicated how Hawaii is committed to having sustainable tourism. Hawaii has acknowledged all the stakeholders, and they are all involved in management of sustainable tourism, which in the long term will help in attaining sustainable tourism. In order to be able to move towards a responsible and sustainable tourism industry in the state, there is a need to have a clear vision for managing the development of Hawaii.  


Griffins, T & Williams, P (2012). Sustainable tourism Routledge publishing

 Hawaii Tourism Authority (2010). Hawaii tourism strategic plan retrieved from http://www.hawaiitourismauthority.org/default/assets/file/about/tsp2005_2015_final.pdf

Honey, M (2002). Ecotourism and certification setting standards in practice Island Press

McKecher, B (2003). Sustainable tourism development retrieved from http://www.estig.ipbeja.pt/~aibpr/Ensino/EngDesenvTur/MaterialdeApoio/Grupo2/GuidingPrinciples.pdf

Middleton, T Victor, C & Hawkins, R (2012). Sustainable tourism CRC Press

Ongley, J (2004). Sustainable tourism accessed on retrieved from http://www.hawaii.edu/malamalama/2004/02/f1_tourism.html

Picard, D & Robinson, R (2006). Tourism, Culture, and sustainable development retrieved from http://unesdoc.unesco.org/images/0014/001475/147578e.pdf

Saucer, M Cox, L Cusick, J & McClure, B (2008). Achieving sustainable tourism in Hawaii using sustainability evaluation system Resource management

UNEP (2005). Making tourism more sustainable UNEP retrieved from http://www.unep.fr/shared/publications/pdf/DTIx0592xPA-TourismPolicyEN.pdf

Weaver, D (2012). Sustainable tourism Routledge publishing

World Tourism Organization (2004). Sustainable development of tourism Accessed on 13th May 2013 retrieved from http://rmportal.net/library/content/usaid-sustainable-tourism-collection

Published in Sociology
Friday, 29 November 2013 03:02

Genetic Technology

Genetic Technology

Experts Discourage Ban on Genetic Engineering

Evidence shows that technology has contributed to the growth of many fields in the current global world. Technology development has entered into all areas of human everyday operations something that helps the work of man to become easier as compared in the past days. Development of genetic technology according to this article has changed how people perceive things. It has the ability to work and change the genes of a fetus from the realm science concept fictions to a possible reality situation in the future. The food and drug administration in US as well as in other countries have banned the issue of large scale genetic modifications because evidence shows that these moves of genetic technology are against humans life and beliefs. Most researchers in this field according to the article believe that the ban of the issue of genetic technology should not be banned rather it should take a different direction that does not violate human beliefs. Based on different theories, genetic engineering of human zygotes may affect the genes of a fetus because there are instances where the genes may be changed affecting the composition of the actual fetus. The reason why these genetic modifications are banned is because of the problematic conditions that can develop if people start modifying fetus based on their taste, (Craig, 2011).

The author of the article claims that studies show that there is that genetic engineering that are faster while others are slow. Since not all genetic modifications are bad, a better way should be developed on how to regulate fetal genetic modification. There are several challenges if genetic technology is left to take its course something that may develop a great impact on the modified genes in the coming generations. We have hundreds of genetic engineering research that requires attention, but simply because the government politics does not allow this kind of technology, they will remain untouched. The article claims that hundreds of children are born with diseases that can be prevent by the use of genetic technology. The greatest question is why the government can use the strategy to prevent these diseases that lead to death plus regulate the use of genetic technology in the human environment, (Scurry, 2013).

The article relates to the course in several ways. Every aspect of human is going technology. The article talks about genetic technology on how genes can be changed so as to reduce the level of new born with disease infections. Genetic engineering has at length entered in the world of genes modification although the united state government does not allow the funding of these research activities. The concepts of genetic modification, prevention of birth diseases, DNA concepts, and reproductive matters are among the factors that have been covered in this article, and they are of much importance to the human life. This article clearly discourages the issue of genetic engineering simply because it can be used to violate genes of the fetus in human reproduction and later affect the coming generations, (Craig, 2011).

The article caught my attention due to the concept of genes modification. I think this topic is somehow related to issue that are important in my life because they affect the future generation. There are diseases that affect children in our everyday activities. The article caught my attention simply because I would wish to work for the minimizing of such disease that can be controlled. I think the best thing in genetic technology is to develop something like standards that give measures and standards on how genetic technology should be used.

The research on whether genetic technology is something vital in human life. It should be noted that funding for genetic technology should not be from the public but funding for research on determining whether genetic technology should be banned should be open. Research on whether genetic technology should be banned must be funded by the government simply because it has an impact to the society. I think tax payers money should be used to fund this research simply because the issue of genetic modification develops a lot of worries to the future generations. The private sector should also fund this research so as to come up with those concepts that are of help in genes modification. I believe the issue of genetic modification should have professional and experts who are ready to evaluate the positive and negative impacts towards the introduction of the concept, (Scurry, 2013).

In summing up, I believe the topic in this research is relevant to the human development. We should come up with new ways on how to balance the impacts of genetic technology that affects how humans develop genes for the future generation.


Craig, D (2011).Genetic Modification (Issues). Independence Educational Publishers.

Scurry, K. (2013). Experts Discourage Ban on Genetic Engineering. Retrieved from, http://www.dukechronicle.com/articles/2013/04/04/experts-discourage-ban-genetic-engineering, on May 10, 2013

Published in Nursing
Friday, 29 November 2013 02:57

Progressive Era

Progressive Era


The progressive era all through to the Great Depression was a time when there were a lot of accomplishments, and also some disasters were experienced. One of the most interesting time periods in the history of America is the progressive era. The aim of this paper is to answer some questions that are related to the progressive era through the Great Depression.

Two major historical turning points

One of the major turning points in period under discussion was the woman suffrage during the progressive era. At this time, there were two groups, which furthered and pushed the cause of the suffrage of the women. The woman suffrage movement started in 1848 where the first convention on human rights was held in New York. The supporters of women suffrage worked towards educating the public concerning the validity of women suffrage. The second turning point was the stock market crash that happened in 1929 that did devastate the economy (Grossman, 2011).

During this time, the banks had already used the money of consumers in investing without knowledge. When everything appeared to be going on the right direction, there was no worry, but when the stocks started declining, that was the time the problem started. The banks were cutting on lending while the Federal Reserve had raised the interest rates because of the cost increases. When the bank had less money for loaning out, the market started falling and because of the collapse of the stock market, rate of unemployment in the United Sates reached a high of 25% in 1933. 

The impact of the turning points on America

The woman suffrage movement resulted to the passing of the nineteenth amendment which allowed women the right of voting. The right that women were provided with was the largest expansion of in the American history of the voting population. The passing of the amendment opened doors for women which provided them with the platform of expanding above their voices (Grossman, 2011). This provided women with the opportunity of becoming lawyers, senators, teachers, and doctors. The crashing of the stock market changed the way United States did business as this is incidence that caused panic in the entire country. Even if, the crash lasted for just four days, it caused a catastrophic sell off. It also resulted to the start of the Great Depression. Most jobs were lost as businesses went bankrupt which created a decrease in the purchasing power of the consumers. This also caused the business to lower their prices on merchandise.

Women right to vote in frontier states

The fact that women could vote became a revolution in the American mentality and politics. Wyoming which is known as the equality state was the first state in the western that approved the right for women to vote. The women did earn the right of voting in the frontier states in the west before the southern and the eastern states because the west was the frontier land. The frontier state was new and also developing, and it had no cultural norms regarding the gender roles; therefore, women were free of charting their paths (Grossman, 2011). Politicians also assisted in this process as they supported the women movement with hope of attracting settlers and attention to the west. Women in the west did enjoy more social and economic freedom, and the suffrage in the west was one of the most essential political challenge that was fought by the human rights women.

Legislation in the Roosevelt, Taft, Wilson progressive Era

During the Progressive Era under the presidents Roosevelt, Taft, Wilson was a period of a lot of reforms. The laws during the time were enacted in the attempt of influencing the way the Americans lived and so that to safeguard them against the social wrongs. The courts at the time were used in improving the work conditions, children, and women and also the brutal racial animosity that was very prevalent in the period. Some of the legislative that have influenced the conduct of the business is the creation of the department of commerce and labor and also the passage of the Hepburn Act (Grossman, 2011).

The creation of the department of commerce and labor that happened in 1903 was later separated to be department of commerce and department of labor were intended for resolving the existing conflicts in labor and capital. According to the secretary of created department, he claimed that the mission was to turn labor and capital in two arms of business whereby through corporation, it would promote the interests of industrial manufacturing in America. In 1906, the Hepburn act was passed so that to regulate and establish maximum railroads rates. This is an act that strengthened the railway regulations that existed, and it also submitted the national railroads companies to the interstate commerce commission.   

Spanish American war

The Spanish American war contributed a lot in the creation of the American empire. The way did turn the United States into a modern no aristocratic empire that was founded on state power, but it oriented towards the commercial gain of the well connected associates and friends. Everything that the United States accomplished was aimed at expanding its market and strengthening its military and political power. This war also strengthened the position and the role of the national, Government in every aspect of the American life (Segal, 2010). The Spanish American war was a manifestation of the commitment of the United Sates to the manifest destiny which reaffirmed the need for establishing the American power in non American territories. The war assisted America in expanding its military and political influence over the new territories. The end of the war between Spain and United States did signify the end of the colonial power of Spain and it marked the beginning if the world power of America.

The Roaring Twenties

The boom and bust of the Roaring Twenties did affect the participation of the federal government in the national economy by the New Deal of President Roosevelt (Segal, 2010). This is a deal that created programs that increased the spending of the federal government. Some of the things that were addressed were the banking crisis that resulted to the Emergency Bank Relief Act. It created federal control over the banks and it also helped in rescuing them from failure with loans from the government. The president also created federal emergency relief administration that increased the contributions of the federal to the state and city relief agencies.


The incidences that happened during the Progressive Era through to the Great Depression appear to have a direct impact to the next incident. These are incidences that helped the Americans as the government considered it as its responsibility in providing social support to the needy. The involvement of the government in the economic and social life of Americans is expected, and it is also desired by many.


Segal, E (2010). Social welfare policy and social programs Cengage Learning

Grossman, B (2011). A comparison of the progressive Era and the Depression Years Libraries & cultural Records 46 (1)

Published in History

Ethical Standards in the Allocation of Medical Resources to an Aging Population

            Utility/ efficiency is one of the ethical standards that should determine the allocation of resources to an aging population (Brock & Wickler, 2006). The aging population requires scarce medical resources such as kidneys, liver and heart transplants. Thus, the allocation mechanism should seek to maximize the health benefits for the elderly population. In this case, patients with the highest survival chances are accorded priority so as to save as many lives as possible.  

Justice and equity are also vital ethical standards that should be used in determining the allocation of resources. Equity means that all persons involved should get equal chances in receiving healthcare resources (Brock & Wickler, 2006). The allocation mechanism should not alienate a section of the population.  Justice means that the method used in allocating medical resources should be acceptable to all members of the community (Gibson, Martin & Singer, 2005). The mechanism used to allocate resources should be transparent and accountable.  Patients’ autonomy is also an essential ethical consideration in the allocation of medical resources.  Patients should be allowed to determine their own outcomes and the care that individual wish to receive.

The greatest ethical challenge in the provision of end-of-life care entails balancing between utility and equal distribution of resources (Gibson, Martin & Singer, 2005). In most cases, the utility standard favors a particular group of people and disadvantages others. For instances, a 68 year old has a higher chance of survival than a 98 year old during a heart transplant. Thus, an allocation mechanism may alienate individual in their late elderly years. This undermines the principle of equal distribution of resources. It becomes extremely difficult to balance between equality and maximization of utility.  


Brock D.  & Wickler D. (2006). Ethical Issues in the Allocation of Resources. May 7, 2013. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK11739/

Gibson J. Martin D. & Singer P. (2005). Resources Allocation in Health Services Organizations. Healthcare Quarterly. 8 (2): 50- 58

Published in Nursing
Friday, 29 November 2013 02:50

The solution to Organizational Change

The solution to Organizational Change

Q 1

            The scope of change is one of the key factors in the development of the organization. An organization aims at allocating resources in an equitable manner, but with a scope in change, the organization fails to allocate those resources in an effective manner. The degree of scope of change within an organization creates a significant alteration of activities something that affects how the resources are distributed in target units. Resource allocation tends to be highly concentrated on areas that are in the development process. The equal allocation aspect fails to work in a situation where the scope of change occurs because the organization will be forced to concentrate on the area of change. This may affect the operation of the organization activities because on how resources are allocated in areas that are not affected, (Spector, 2010).

Q 2

            It is clear that we are living in a world of change where organizations are exposed to hundreds of opportunities for development. There are organizations that use different organization change process depending on their needs. In order to realize any sound change, I believe I would use many steps in the organizational change process. These steps helps compare several options and come up with decisions for a limited scopes compared to a one of major scope system. Many steps have been discovered to be the best approach simply because they focus on results and not activities thus making the entire process productive. These steps also help to adjust and monitor strategies in response to the problems present in the organization change process, (Borkowski, 2005).

Q 3

            Evidence indicates that employees or workers in an organization know a lot that affects development of their organization but prefer not to speak the truth. Organization silence occurs when the upward communication does not function in accordance. There are instances when the work place communication especially the upward situation is discouraged. In such a situation, employees prefer not speaking what they believe affects their workplace environment. Another factor is the leadership situation. Lack of effective leadership that encompasses emotional and rational aspects of human experience contributes to organization silence. Politics and power in the organization has also been a contributing factor towards silence simply because these issues leads to frustrations of employees who in return prefer not talking about what affects the firm or the problems they come across in their everyday activities, (Spector, 2010).

Q 4

            There are several techniques that should be applied in dealing or reducing the effects of employees silence within an organization. Top management should always recognize the usefulness of having an open communication channel. Another approach is creating an open and trustworthy working environment where employees feel free to share their minds with top management. It is clear that most managers do not want to hear negative feedback; thus they should not shoot the messenger irrespective of the nature of the feedback rather they should come up with strategies on how to deal with the situation. An organization should handle employees who come with risky or sensitive information with privacy and high integrity for the better of the organization. The organization should also create a formal mechanism where employees are able to raise their minds without fear, (Borkowski, 2005).


Borkowski, N. (2005). Organizational behavior in health care. Sudbury, MA: Jones and Bartlett Publishers

Spector, B. (2010). Implementing organizational change: Theory into practice (2nd ed). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Prentice Hall

Published in Management
Friday, 29 November 2013 02:40

HIV Epidemics and the GAY MEN

HIV Epidemics and the GAY MEN

Health Advocacy Policy


The epidemic of HIV in gay men started in the 1970s (Phillips et al, 2013). The numbers of new cases of diagnosis continue to increase in many countries. Since the beginning of the United States’ epidemic of HIV, gay and bisexual men have consistently represented the largest percentage of persons diagnosed with new cases of infection in the United States (Ayala, Beck, Lauer, Reynolds, & Sundararaj, 2010). For instance, there were 48,100 incidences of HIV infection in the United States. Despite gay men making only 2% of the total population, 62% of the new cases of HIV infections, in 2009, involved gay men. There is a significant disparity of infection with respect to race. For instance, African Americans comprised 44% of the new cases of infection. In relation to age, people within the age bracket of 13-29 percent constituted 39% of the general HIV incidence in 2009 (Gipson & Garcia, 2009). In order to make informed decisions and choices of interventions, knowledge of the past trends of the epidemic, and the factors that influenced these trends. 

Summary of Advocacy Programs

SAGE’s Programs on HIV and AIDS

SAGE provides essential health care services to lesbian, gay, bi-sexual, and transgender LGBT older adults with HIV, in New York City (SAGE, 2013). It does this through partnership with community-based agencies that reach aging health and social service providers. On the national level, SAGE provides training on cultural competence for mainstream aging service providers. In terms of advocacy, SAGE’s national advocacy works in partnership with the Gay Men’s Health Crisis (GMHC) and the AIDS Community Research Initiative of America. The policy goals of the program include: defining HIV-infected older adults as a population listed among those in the category of the “greatest social need”, in the “Older American’s Act”; advocating for increased federal funding program and research interventions on older adults with HIV; supporting demonstration projects and special projects of national significance through HHS; improving epidemiological surveillance systems and data collection at the centers for Disease Control and Prevention, on older adults with HIV; instituting routine HIV testing for adults without regard to age or risk factor.

The Global Alliance for LGBT Education (GALE)

            GALE is a global platform through which 600 sexual diversity trainers and educators (Gipson & Garcia, 2009). GALE supports exchanging of experiences and improvement of the quality of work. It is based in the Netherlands and promotes adequate implementation of the right to education for sexual diversity. Its programs related to sexual minorities are supported by the Ministry of Health, Netherlands.

Attributes for the Effectiveness of these Programs

The programs described above have been successful in implementing their programs because they have ensured certain factors.

  1. Cooperation: They have adjoined their initiatives with activities of other organizations including government agencies and private organization working in the health sector. For instance, sage partners with the Gay Men are Health Crisis (GMHC) and the AIDS Community Research Initiative of America. GALE works with the ministry of health to implement its activities (Gipson & Garcia, 2009).
  2. Policy. They have been successful because they have influenced policy change.  GALE advocates for policy change through sexual diversity education. Through the ministry of health, its policy recommendations have been resulted in the law, relating to health access by the social minorities.
  3. Community participation. It is fundamental that organizations involve the contribution of the principal stakeholders. For instance, SAGE utilizes the participation of gay people with HIV through Gay Men’s Health Crisis (GMHC).

Socio-Economic Factors

Several social determinants significantly affect the health of gay people and complicate interventions (Smith et al., 2013). They include

  • Alcoholism and substance abuse
  • Poverty and homelessness
  • Lack of health coverage
  • Concerns about lack of confidentiality when accessing health care services
  • Mental health issues
  • Stigma
  • Homophobia
  • Sexually transmitted diseases
  • Childhood sexual abuse and other forms of abuse

          Gay men may experience these factors more acutely because they may not have access to the prospective aspects of their communities and families because of the sensitivity of the issue of gay status. The conceptual framework displayed below demonstrates the link between homophobia and vulnerability of gay men to HIV/AIDS.

A Plan for a Proposed Advocacy Campaign

In relation to the UNAIDS reports, the lack of effective response has made HIV reach crisis levels in several communities of gay and transgender people (Gipson & Garcia, 2009). Interventions to reverse this crisis should be evidence informed, based on human rights and inspired by the need to decriminalize same-sex activities.  Communities, social institutions, and health care organizations must work in collaboration to ensure that actions that prevent easy access to HIV services are discouraged and removed.  

This policy framework is aimed at addressing social discrimination against gay men in relation to HIV and includes recommendations for policy development and concerted efforts. In relation to the observed linkages between social discrimination (homophobia) and the vulnerability of gay people to HIV disease, new policy is required in this area.  The aims and recommendations developed by this policy framework are in line with the human rights and are intended for policy makers, public health practitioners, researchers, health care and social service providers, and advocates. Scaling up services and recommendations for non-discriminate access of health care by all people and communities requires all of us to understand the role of discrimination and stigma in facilitating the progression of the epidemic. It is vital that we reposition this issue and make it a fundamental pillar that supports the responses aimed at HIV intervention.  

                       Specific Objectives

The challenge is in making sure that homophobia is acknowledged as a significant contributor to the alarming rates of HIV prevalence. Therefore, this framework proposes a policy change with the following objectives

  1. To advocate for the adoption of human rights-based framework for tackling social discrimination
  2. To advocate for decriminalization of same-sex activities through a legal reform recommendation
  3. To contribute to capacity building for health care delivery systems

Communicating With Stakeholders

The principal stakeholders in this policy initiative are policy makers, health care practitioners, gay men with HIV, donors to HIV advocacy programs, and the state and federal government (Phillips et al, 2013)..  In order to ensure support of all the stakeholders, the stakeholders are involved actively in defining the policy recommendation for effective multisectoral interventions to the HIV/AIDS epidemic with particular attention to gay persons with HIV. The relevant sectors must be involved in drafting the national policy response.  In addition, a framework for cooperation and assistance among relevant stakeholders is prepared for easy information sharing. In this respect, the roles of all stakeholders must be recognized. For instance, the role the state and federal government is to ensure coordination and coherence of national frameworks, in the context of multisectoral participation.

The government implements research services, provides financial resources, and delivers clinical, health promotion, and protection services. The civil society is a partner of the government in implementation of services, but is also a watchdog that ensures that the government fulfills its commitments and mandate. Persons living with HIV, in this context, gay men with HIV, must be involved in all stages of policy formulation, implementation, and evaluation. Identification of stakeholders and recognition of the roles that each stakeholder plays is essential in ensuring that the process of policy development

Ensuring Support for the Policy

In order to do conduct advocacy activities successfully, the three-leg advocacy strategy can be utilized (Ayala, Beck, Lauer, Reynolds, & Sundararaj, 2010). The “three legs” represents legislative advocacy, media campaigns, and grassroots mobilization. In order to win the support of local communities, including gay men, grassroots mobilization will be done. This will be done through the local administration components including local leaders, school administration, and church leaders. The second strategy is through the media, which includes the internet, radio and television advertisements. The third strategy, legislative advocacy, involves soliciting a way to sponsor a bill.

        In order to ensure support for the policy, the process of developing the policy must be done in line with certain factors

  • The policy framework and the process of developing it must conform to the government procedures
  • The policy must acknowledge the existence of other reforms and organizations that have a close bearing on the proposed policy guidelines
  • Clear definition of the way in which such the policy will enhance improvement in health must be clarified.
  • The roles of relevant agencies and health care professionals must be defined clearly to clear fears of the negative implication of the proposed policy

Recommendations for Health Care Service Delivery

            Typically, Gay men comprise a group of individuals that are hard to locate by health service systems (Gipson & Garcia, 2009). Collaborations and partnership with the community-based organization is necessary. This can be done by way of strategic outreach methods. Specialized health care services and preventive care should be available to gay men with HIV at all levels; primary, secondary, and tertiary.  Health care providers, practitioners, and administrators are integral to the health care systems’ strengthening required for the awareness creation with respect to the social and health care needs of gay men.  Therefore, government and private agencies that provide HIV-related services must do a number of things.


  1. Provide sensitization and education efforts aimed at discouraging stigma so as to enable gay men with HIV access consistent care, health information, and treatment without the fear of harassment and discrimination.
  2. Provide context-specific training to communities and service providers to dispel misconceptions and myths about HIV in the context of same-sex orientation.
  3. In health care settings, health care service providers should develop guidelines that enhance clinical care and health promotion among gay men. In this perspective, opportunities for professional development should be made available, routinely, to health care providers including nurses, pharmacists, doctors, lab technicians, nutritionists, social workers, and all professionals working in the health care sector.
  4. Finally, professional health care associations should evaluate their codes and make updates with respect to people infected with HIV, particularly sexual minorities. The codes should be updated to ensure that Gay men and other sexual minorities access freedom from discrimination in environments of health care provision, in line with the expectations of universal freedoms and rights of persons. Health care professional bodies must be at the fore front in speaking against activities and policies that facilitate negative outcomes for people with same sex orientation.

Ethical laws, Dilemmas and Challenges

Criminal law, public health law, and civil law are the three areas of law that govern ethical practices with respect to sexual minorities (Gipson & Garcia, 2009). The principal areas covered by the law include disclosure of HIV status and sexual orientation, indiscriminate access to health care, and protection of third parties from exposure to danger including infection. In particular, social discrimination laws, public indecency laws, and human freedoms and rights affect the capacity of social services to protect the rights of gay men.

Legal, cultural, and religious issues are the principal sources of ethical dilemmas and challenges to the implementation of the reform. For instance, in many states, there is no law that provides a clear guideline as to the issue of addressing the issue of same-sex, with respect to health and social services. In addition, cultural and religious believes are against the idea of same-sex orientation. Therefore, they pose a challenge to the endeavors of seeking participation of the target group. Prior public education on the consequences of social discrimination in the spread of HIV in the community is essential.

In this respect, members of ethnic groups, religious leaders, and legal representatives are components that must be consulted to facilitate informed discussion. This will help in clarifying issues of perceived breach of religious and cultural ethical provision. Gay men with HIV are vital stakeholders in the policy formulation. Therefore, there is a dilemma in terms of their sexual identity and HIV status.  

Legal and Health Reforms

Although no individual approach can provide an optimal solution to the problem of HIV in Gay Men, resources should be directed towards developing and promoting models of interventions that are cost-effective, context-specific, and focused on the social and health needs of the community. In order to address these issues effectively, an appropriately nuanced, inter-sectoral response is required. Coordination of advocacy efforts is necessary so as to reach the multiple layers of socio-cultural and institutional underpinnings such as beliefs and attitudes of communities, families, and individuals. Significantly, these interventions must engage gay men meaningfully, including gay men living with HIV, in order to maximize their effectiveness and efficacy.

In relation to the HIV prevalence and incidence statistics, there is striking evidence that programs that provide for access to HIV prevention, care, and support services have neglected gay men in service coverage.  The United Nations Statement on Gender Identity and Sexual Orientation reaffirms the universality of human rights, condemns violations of human rights based on gender orientation, and calls on countries to ensure that gender and sexual orientation are never the grounds for criminal penalties. This United Nations statement is not binding to the states, but makes it known the principles to which countries should hold themselves accountable. Organizations that roll out community programs should carry out on-behalf of countries the responsibility of implementing strategies that contribute to the reduction of HIV infection among communities without discrimination based on sexual-orientation.  Therefore, programs such as Medicaid, essential health benefits, and health insurance exchange should be updated to cover the issues of sexual minorities. 

Advocating for Legal Reform

            This program will collaborate with communities, global health and development bodies, legal and human rights institutions, and other stakeholders as necessary to identify and repeal emerging and existing criminal laws that form the grounds for discrimination of gay, lesbian, bisexual, and transgender communities.

  1. Criminalization of activities of same-sex partners should be repealed to open ground for coordinated efforts that challenge social discrimination and to develop an environment that facilitates gay men to seek HIV-related information and services
  2. Public indecency laws, public assembly laws, nuisance or loitering laws, and other laws that are biased against people with same-sex orientation.
  3. Changes to policy must also be enacted to protect the rights of gay men, in order to promote social and health care interventions aimed at gay men. These include policy areas such as anti-discrimination laws associated with HIV status, gender identity, and sexual orientation within social structures.


In many countries, sexual minorities do not have recourse for justice when their freedoms and rights are violated (Smith et al., 2013). In many cases, such violations of rights go unnoticed by the agents of social justice. In order to address the individual health care needs, gay people must be accorded the opportunity to realize their freedoms and rights and channel them through their grievances through relevant agencies.  The federal government, civil society, and policy makers must work together to develop an enabling environment so that victims of hate crimes and discrimination can access legal services freely and confidentially. Advocates of the rights of minorities and special groups must have resources to facilitate the creation of spaces where gay men with HIV and other infected sexual minorities can access social support. This can be between individuals in the special sexual-orientation groups or social support provided by the community. This is particularly essential where psychosocial support is not readily available.  This involves facilitating the formation of gay men support groups, networks, and organizations.


Ayala, G., Beck, J., Lauer, K., Reynolds, R., & Sundararaj, M. (2010) “Social Discrimination against gay men” Oakland, California: Global Forum on HIV and MSM

Gipson, M. & Garcia, G. (2009) “Transitioning HIV+ Youth into Adult-Care” Cleveland, Ohio: Camp Sunrise & Ohio AIDS Coalition

Phillips, A.N. et al. (2013) “Increased HIV Incidence in Gay Men despite High-Level Antiretroviral Therapy-Induced Viral Suppression” PLoS ONE, 8(2): e55312. Doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0055312

SAGE (2013) “HIV and Aging” https://www.sageusa.org/issues/hiv.cfm

Smith, P. et al. (2012) “HIV-related stigma within gay men communities” AIDS Care, 24(3-4): 405-412

Published in Nursing
Friday, 29 November 2013 02:31

Logistical Implications of Lowering Prices

Logistical Implications of Lowering Prices


Christmas figures for 2012 indicate that Morrison’s sales dropped by 2.5%. Phillips suggests that two factors are behind the Morrison’s declining sales. The first reason is the chain’s absence in the online market. According to Rudick (2013) online sales recorded better performance than traditional retail sales. Philip identified lack of convenience stores as the other reason behind Morrison’s declining sales. Other sources suggest that Morrison’s sales have also been affected by the presence of international competitors, who are offering low prices. This implies that Morrison needs to establish online sales, add the number of convenient stores and lower its prices, in order to arrest the decline sales. This paper explores the logistical implications of lowering prices on Morrison Supermarket.

Morrison Supermarket


          Morrison is among UK’s largest retail stores (Kalmarova, 2012). Morrison serves over 9 million customers in a year with its 450 stores located across the country. Food is Morrison’s main product. Food is one of UK’s largest economic sectors as it accounts for 7% of the country’s GDP (Department for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs, 2013). The industry consists of various players including farmers, manufacturers, retailers and consumers. Morrison sells a variety of food products including; fruits, vegetable, meat, dairy and other animal products. These products are highly perishable and thus require a fast distribution channel. The supermarket also provides processed foods such as serials.


UK’s grocery market is growing at a steady rate of 4% per annum (Grocery News, 2012). Inflation and increased demand for frozen foods are some of factors that have led to this growth. According to Grocer News (2013) the inflation rate dropped to 3.8% in 2012 from a rate of 4.2% in the previous year. Health consciousness has also increased demand for fresh produce. Today, many consumers are opting for fresh rather than synthetic foods.

Though the market is growing, the consumption patterns are changing. Current economic conditions have affected the purchasing power of consumer (Bruce, 2012). Today, consumers prefer organizations that provide them with pocket friendly product. They also prefer services that promote their convenience and help them to save fuel. This trend has disadvantaged Morrison as it prices are highly, and the company has limited number of convenient stores.

The food market is extremely competitive. Morrison faces stiff competition from rival chains such as Asda, Sainsbury and Tesco (Grocery News, 2012). New international chains such as Aldi and Lidl have also entered the market. Morrison’s competitive priority is to provide high quality services to the customers. Morrison has differentiated its products through various ways. Providing fresh products and promoting sustainability is one way in which Morrison has differentiated its products.

For many years, Morrison has relied on its fresh approach and sustainability principles to compete (Kalmarova, 2012). Morrison priority has also been to deliver fresh products to the consumer. The supermarket has gained the reputation for providing fresh produce to the market. Morrison’s concern for the wellbeing of   has also become a source of competitive advantage for the supermarket. The supermarket obtains fresh produce from local suppliers such as farmers. This increases economic benefits to the farmers.

Morrison competitive strategy also entails providing a personalized service to the customers (2012). This based on the company’s belief that it less costly to maintain existing customers rather than attract new customers. The company has made significant efforts towards developing a high performing workforce. This is meant to improve customer experiences by providing them with friendly services.

Distribution Structures

          In order to preserve it fresh approach and sustainability principles, Morrison holds significant influence over its supply chain (Bruce, 2012).  The chain has eliminated most of the middle men such as processors, transporters and warehouses. Morrison has established its own food processing facilities. The company owns meat and fish processing facilities, bakeries and other processing factories. The chain obtains produce from farmers and transports the raw products to its processing facilities. Fresh produce are transported directly to the chain’s temperature controlled storage and packaging plants that are located within and outside the country. The package products are then transported to the nearest retain stores.

   Vertical integration has enabled Morrison supermarket to have a large influence on the standards of it commodities (Bruce, 2012). The company has absolute control over all essential component of the supply chain include transportation, production, storage and selling. Vertical integration has also enabled Morrison to support local producers. Elimination of middle level players enabled Morrison to offer superior prices to primary producers such as farmers. This has a positioned the company as socially responsible organization. Elimination of middle level players has also enhanced Morrison’s capacity to implement its environmental principles.

Implications of Lowering Prices

  1. Implication of Competitive Strategy

          Companies require a point of advantage in order to compete effectively. Porters identified three broad sources of competitive advantage; cost leadership, differentiation and focus (Minarik, 2008). Morrison supermarket relies on differentiation strategies to compete. Differentiation entails developing unique products features that add value to the customer. Morrison differentiates itself from competitors through efforts such as delivering fresh produce, creating a perception of sustainability and developing personalized relationships with consumers. Differentiation strategy relies on a small volume of consumers who are willing to pay high prices.

         Price is not among Morrison’s competitive priorities (Kalmarova, 2012). Companies that compete on the basis of price rely on the cost leadership strategy. This strategy entails reducing the cost of production to levels that are lower than competitors so as to provide the lowest prices to the consumer. Cost leaders depend on large volume of customers who demand for high prices (Minarik, 2008). Thus, seeking to reduce prices, Morrison will be attempting to combine differentiation and cost leadership strategies.

          Porters viewed the three generic strategies as having a mutually exclusive relationship (Minarik, 2008). He argued that companies that attempt to combine these strategies get stuck in the middle. However, there is a visible gap between this theory and practice as there are a number of firms that managed to integrate differentiation and cost leadership strategies successfully. Wal-Mart, McDonalds and Toyota are excellent examples of firms that have integrated these strategies with a high degree of success (Minark, 2008). While it may not be possible to integrate all the components of both strategies, companies have successfully integrated these two strategies by establishing a trade-off relationship.

         Morrison decision to pursue reduction in prices means that the company has to trade off some of the features of differentiation.  Differentiation strategy is inherently costly (Minark, 2008). Morrison has to incur extra cost in training and motivating workers, transporting commodities and managing production activities. The company also incurs additional costs in pursuing it sustainability principles. Morrison has to reduce some of these costs and still provide premium quality services to the customer.

  1. Logistical Implication

Vertical integration has given Morrison a strategic advantage. Today, Morrison produces over 20% of its products (Bruce, 2012). The rest of the products are obtained directly from the primary producers. However, this strategy also provides Morrison with a tactical disadvantage. Operational inflexibility is one of these tactic disadvantages (Bruce, 2012). Retail chain requires a lot of operational flexibility in order to reduce cost. They need to be proactive in respond to market conditions.

Vertical integration has reduced Morrison’s operational inflexibility. Morrison has to rely on a limited number of suppliers (Brice, 2012). This means that it cannot take advantage of supply opportunities that originate from other quotas. Rivals such as Tesco can easily change suppliers when the prevailing situation dictates. Similarly, vertical integration has also limited Morrison to a fix processing system. This limits the organization’s capacity to respond to changes in the market environment. For instance, if a new processing technology is discovered, rival company may quickly shift to producers that have adopted this technology. However, Morrison cannot make the shift as it would be costly to abandon its own processing systems. Thus, there are no quick fix solutions for Morrison when it comes to reduction of prices. Price can only be reduced by enhancing the efficiency of Morrison processes.

Reduction in Transportation Cost

          Transport is one of the components of Morrison supply chain. Transport constitutes a significant portion of the organization costs (Saharidis, 2010). Thus, Morrison needs to reduce transportation cost in order to deliver good at low prices to the consumer. One way in which Morrison can reduce transportation cost is by decentralizing it supply system. Morrison has highly centralized supply system (Bruce, 2012). Fresh commodities are obtained from farmers, stored in cold facilities before being dispatched to the company’s stores. This increase the transportation distance thus increasing the cost of products.

Morrison can reduce transportation cost by decentralization of its collection and transportation system. Collection and transportation activities should be delegated to store or city level. This would imply that each store, or stores proximally located, would purchase products from surrounding areas thus reducing the collection and transportation distance. This will have a reduction impact on Morrison’s overall transportation costs.

 Decentralization of supply chain would work well in ideal situations. However, Morrison may experience challenges in implementing such a change. This is because Morrison manufactures over 20% of its products (Bruce, 2012). This would mean that the chain would have to establish manufacturing facilities in all cities across the country or near all its stores. Such an undertaking would not be economically feasible. However, decentralization can be applied to fresh produce as these do not require processing. Each store should be empowered to purchase fresh produce from surrounding areas and transport the commodities to the store. There will also be a need to establish precise standards that govern the purchasing process in order to maintain uniformity and high level of quality.

Reduction in the Inventory Cost

Morrison may also need to lower the inventory cost in order to lower prices. Inventory cost also forms a significant portion of overall costs of an organization (Dresner, Carter & Dong, 2011). Inventory cost may include the cost of storage and cost that arises from losses or damage of goods during storage. Since, Morrison deals with fresh produce, inventory costs are fairly high. Morrison requires sophisticated cooling facilities in order to store the produce. The produce is also transported in refrigerated tracks.  This has a lot of cost implication in terms of power consumption. It also results in high amount of wastage.

Morrison can reduce inventory cost by eliminating storage. Morrison should adopt the just-in-time purchasing concept. Just-in-time purchasing entails obtaining the required quantity of goods (Dresner, Carter & Dong, 2011). This means that purchasing activities becomes demand driven. Morrison would need to forecast demand and ensure only products that would be consumed immediately are purchased. Decentralization of the supply chain is also essential to the implementation of Just-in-time purchasing as it would enable the stores to transport the required produce directly to the market.

Just-in-time purchasing will reduce storage cost and wastage (Dresner, Carter & Dong, 2011). Fresh and other farm produce would be obtained from the farmers and transported directly to the stores where consumer would purchase. This not only reduces storage cost but also reduces the lead time for delivering products to the consumer. It also reduced the amount of spoiled goods. However, Morrison will also experience difficulties in implementing this strategy due vertical integration. This strategy would not be feasible for products that require processing.


Morrison has position itself as a retail store that provide customer with high quality fresh produce, value the environment and committed to insuring customer satisfaction. Effort to lower prices cannot interfere with these essential sources of competitiveness. This means that the only way for Morrison to reduce prices is to enhance the efficiency of its processes. Decentralizing it collection and transportation system is one way of enhancing the efficiency of the supply chain. This would reduce the cost of transporting commodities to the store. Morrison can also reduce inventory cost by adopting the just-in-time purchasing concept.  Just-in-time purchasing will enable the organization to reduce cost by eliminating storage cost and wastage.


Bruce A. (2012). Food Manufacturer Morrisons now in a Hard Place. May 10, 2013. http://www.foodmanufacture.co.uk/Business-News/Food-manufacturer-Morrisons-now-in-a-hard-place

Dresner M. Carter C. & Dong Y. (2011). JIT Purchasing and Performance. Journal of Operations Management.

Grocery News (2013). UK Supermarkets. May 10, 2013. http://grocerynews.org/2012-06-16-08-27-26/supermarkets-market-share/grocery-stores

Kalmarova Z. (2012). Sainbury’s vs. Morrison. May 10, 2013. http://is.muni.cz/do/econ/soubory/aktivity/fai/35724989/FAI_issue2012_03_Kalmarova.pdf

Minark M. (2007). Cost Leadership and Differentiation. May 10, 2013. http://arc.hhs.se/download.aspx?MediumId=315

Ruddick G. (2013). Morrison’s Online Dilemma Becomes Clear after Christmas Turkey. May 10, 2013. http://www.telegraph.co.uk/finance/newsbysector/retailandconsumer/9786486/Morrisons-online-dilemma-becomes-clear-after-Christmas-turkey.html

Saharidis G. (2010). Optimizing Supply Chain: Decentralized or Centralized Planning. Supply Chain Management Journal

The Department for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs (2013), Making the Food and Farming Industry Competitive. May 10, 2013. https://www.gov.uk/government/policies/making-the-food-and-farming-industry-more-competitive-while-protecting-the-environment

Published in Economics
Friday, 29 November 2013 02:24

Business Information Systems

 Business Information Systems

Case Study: Tesco and Sainsbury


Business information systems are the tools, procedures, and techniques used by an organization to process data (Hooper & Page, 1997). Business firms infuse information management systems into their operations, in order to enhance facilitate business development and success and enhance competitiveness. Business information systems are the result of an organizations work flows, organizational structure and culture, operating procedures and politics (Laudon, 2001). Organizations have different business information systems because they have varying business needs, evaluation, and improvement procedures (Chaffey & Wood, 2005). This paper investigates the business information systems of Tesco and Sainsbury for the purposes of comparison. It observes the procedures implemented to create change in existing information systems, in order to share lessons, in terms of organizational performance and change processes.

Introduction to Tesco and Sainsbury Plc

Tesco plc is a London-based general merchandise and grocery retail chain. In terms of market share and global sales, Tesco is the largest British retailer, with revenues of £60 billion and profits of approximately £3 billion, in 2009. Globally, it is the third largest retailer with 500,000 employees and 4000 stores. In addition to food and drink, Tesco has diversified into electronics, clothing, internet services, insurance, financial services and other business services. Tesco’s system of retail operations such as supply chain logistics and barcode scanning depend on efficient IT systems. Tesco acknowledges the significance of IT systems in business management and achievement of competitive edge through implementations of innovative IT systems, which make life easy for employees and improve the shopping experience for the customer. Tesco has extensive controls that maintain the integrity, efficiency, and consistency of business processes such as delivery.

Sainsbury supermarkets are the United Kingdom’s principal food retailing chain store established in 1869. It sells at least 30,000 products of different kinds. It deals in grocery products and fresh food produce, which comprises 50% of the total products sold by the supermarkets. The principal aims of the supermarkets are to satisfy customers through high quality products, value for money, excellent services, and attention to detail. Sainsbury employs 150,000 workers. In addition to processed foods and fresh produce, Sainsbury provides complimentary products such as clothing, restaurants, petrol stations, coffee shops, etc. In view of the complex products offered by these two giant superstores, business information systems are very fundamental to the efficiency of management activities.

Business Processes

The Information systems investigated include marketing systems, human resource management systems (Laudon, 2001).Marketing systems are systems that analyze and evaluate the marketing information in the company, using data gathered continually from sources within and outside the company (Lucey, 2005). Timely information relevant to marketing provides the basis for decision making such as packaging, pricing, product development, and improvement, promotion, and media selection (Benson & Tribe, 2008). The other essential business process is the management information system or MIS. It is concerned with sources of information that are within the management environment. Management information systems usually take data from systems for transaction processing and summarize it into a series of reports that guide the managers to make the right decisions (Rocheleau, 2006).

  Organizations use employs data systems at the level of operation to collect data in terms of the information required to carry out the daily operations of the company (Carr & Kaynak, 2007). In addition, business organizations pay the persons in charge of employment decisions through business information systems. It uses computer database to manage products and observe product performance in the market and also to make online sales via the internet. Human resource systems keep track of workers through a system of integrated data about them. This is normally done in the form of a database. The human resource management is very important for every business institution. In recruiting employees and new managers, the human resource management system provides an appraisal of the most suitable applicants for the company Companies control the performances of employees and training needs through the use of human resource management systems. In addition, human resource management system helps make pay rolls of employees, work-time and performance-time reports. Financial processes are better managed through financial information systems.

The systems record and process the entire business transactions (Rocheleau, 2006). It allows the company to keep an eye in income and expenditure (Lucey, 2005). This keeps the company within the ideal expenditure limits. It measures and predicts the future health of the company’s financial performance. Through management systems, companies can check performance, in the form of profit and loss and makes comparison with the previous year’s performance possible.  Financial information system helps the finance managers pay bills, wages, and debts. A customer relationship management system is the other essential system that is fundamental for business management. Customers are very vital to the organization. It helps the company in making decisions that help in making decisions that help in making the company maintain customers through cost reduction or management of bonus cards. Decision support systems guide the management team in making vital decisions. The system uses analysis tools or information systems to make predictions. Example of a decision support system is the 5-year plan of investment. For the purpose of this assignment, Sainsbury’s management information system for retail store expansion and Tesco’s human resource payroll management system are selected and examined.

Information Technology

Technological advancement provides the means through which organizations enhance their capacity to improve their management systems (Lucey, 2005). They play a fundamental role in communication, inventory management, data management, customer relationship management, management information systems (Rocheleau, 2006). Through efficient information management systems organizations are able to make business predictions, which are essential for risk management functions (Silay & Koronios, 2006). Information technology is essential in making decisions through the development of efficient business strategies. Information technology provides accurate knowledge on the customer and the company itself (Egan & Mather, 2004). Good knowledge of the company is essential in making operational decisions. Therefore, advanced decision making processes increase the capacity of a business to create systems that enable it to gain competitiveness in the market.

Data Analysis

Tesco’s Human Resource Payroll Management System

Tesco has over 500, 000 employees as stated in the introduction. Therefore, managing issues of salaries and wages of employees may be complex. In order to manage employ enumerations and make wage processing efficient, Tesco operates a computerized payroll system that determines the employees pay based on consideration of various aspects such as pay rate, income tax, and other aspects that are fundamental for the determination of employee pay. The table below presents the items that are included in Tesco’s employee data for payroll.

Data Elements in Payroll Master File











Pay Rate


Vacation Time


Gross Pay


Earnings (Year to Date)



Income Tax




Sainsbury’s Expansion of Retail Stores and Supermarkets

Sainsbury is a large chain of supermarkets and superstores. It operates thousands of stores across its various business locations. Every year, the company makes decisions on expansions of the various categories of stores based on consideration of certain factors. In order to make shrewd decisions, Sainsbury keeps track of the number of stores that it has across the various size categories. In addition, its management information system presents the rate of change in line with the introduction of specific–size stores.

Retail Statistics- 5-year Summary


Financial Year






Number of outlets at the end of the financial year


Sainsbury's supermarkets- over 40,000 sq. ft sales area


















Under 25,000






Sainsbury Supermarkets Total







Sainsbury's supermarkets plus affiliated stores






%increase in new stores






Decision Support System for Expansion of Sainsbury’s Stores

The impact of the decision to increase stores at different rates for the different categories can be best present by use of trend lines in excel or SPSS. Therefore, this is an area that needs to be adjusted so that trends appear alongside the absolute numbers.   


Option 1

Option 2

Option 3

Option 4



























Option 1

Supermarkets with size over 40,000 sq. ft size


supermarkets with 25,000-40,000 sq. ft size


supermarkets with 15,000-25,000 sq. ft size


supermarkets with size under 15,000 sq. ft size

Trend line

Sensitivity Analysis: What-If Function

Sainsbury and Tesco deal in a wide variety of products. Decisions regarding specific products can enhance the business outcome of the various retail giants. Therefore, it is necessary to have a form of business information system that takes care of the various elements of decision making that affects a single product, but with relative effects across the company. Therefore, the what-if-function presented below is fundamental for the managing specific products with respect to elements of decision making including fixed costs, variable costs, selling price, discount, demand, order, and discounts. With respect to these items, the level of profitability or revenue of each product can be calculated. 





Fixed order cost





selling price



Discount Price



Variable Cost



Selling Price





Demand (units)



Order (units)



Profit (Dollars)



Formula for Revenue=IF(B3>B4,10*B4,10*B3+4*(B4-B3)


In the model, $750, 4, and 6 are fixed order cost, variable cost, and discount respectively; they should be changed depending on the product involved. The desired level of revenue generation and profitability can be determined by altering specific values in the formula. This is essential in monitoring specific product performance and its contribution to the business growth.


Business information systems play a critical role in the performance management of a company (Rocheleau, 2006). Tesco and Sainsbury plc have been able to grind out success in a competitive industry based on its ability to create business management systems ensure successful business operations. However, with the improvement of technology, these systems need to be advanced to match the competition gap in the market. This paper has developed a product financial management system, which can guide the companies in assessing the performance of specific products and predicting future product performance and risks.


Benson, V. & Tribe, K. (2008) “Business Information System” Ventus Publishing APS

Carr, A. & Kaynak, H. (2007) “Communication methods, information sharing, & supplier development” Journal of Operations & Production Management, 27(4): 346-370

Chaffey, D. & Wood, S. (2005) “Business Information Management: Improving Performance using information systems: Essex: Pearson Education

Delone, W. & Mclean, E. (1992) “Information systems success: the quest for independent variable” Information Systems Research, 3(1): 60-95

Egan, M. & Mather, T. (2004) “Executive Guide to Information Security: Threats, Challenges, and Solution” Symantec Press

Hooper, P. & Page, J. (1997) “Organizing Information and Data flows in business systems” National Public Accountant, 42(9): 9-14

Laudon, K. (2001) “Essentials of Information Systems: Organization and Technology in the networked enterprise (4th ed.)”. Hoboken, NJ: Prentice Hall

Lucey, T. (2005) “Management Information System (9th ed.) Bedfore Row, London: Pearson Education

Rocheleau, B. (2006) “Public Management Information System”. London: IDEA Group Publishing

Sainsbury (2006) “Sainsbury’s Sales beats forecasts”

Silay, J. & Koronios, A. (2006) “Information Technology: Security & Risk Management” New York: John Wiley & Sons

Tesco (2010) “Product Information Management” Tesco.com

Published in Business Studies
Friday, 29 November 2013 02:18

John Hopkins Hospital

John Hopkins Hospital

Dean T (2013) John Hopkins Hospital Retrieved fromhttp://health.usnews.com/best-hospitals/area/md/johns-hopkins-hospital-6320180

This article provides a preview of John Hopkins Hospital. The John Hopkins hospital contains 46775 admissions for medical and surgical facilities. It is located in Baltimore, and it contains 23433 in patients and 34990 outpatient’s surgeries. The hospital has 84982 emergency room visits in a year. In addition, it offers teaching facilities for students and is ranked as the highest in the country for customer satisfaction.

Collins, B Withers, M & Hillman, A (2009). Resource dependency theory Journal of management 20 (10)

According to the authors, resource development has been applied across research domain so that to explain how the organizations usually reduce environmental uncertainty and interdependence. The authors in the article assess the empirical research, conceptual development, and application of RDT. The authors aim at describing the elements of RDT and empirical support in its account for organization-environment relations. John Hopkins uses the theory on the board of directors in enabling the organization to minimize dependence or even gain resources.

McCarthy, D & Klein, S (2012). Johns Hopkins Medicine Commonwealth fund pub. 1474 vol. 6

According to this publication, John Hopkins is a medical center that trains frontline teams to mitigate and identify patient safety hazards. The publication outlines the strategies that the hospital has been able to implement so that to achieve improvement in the safety practices. Some of the success factors outlines by the writers in this publication include setting ambitious goals, holding units accountable for results, empowering frontline staff in making improvement, and involving the board and executives in change.

Daft R, Murphy, J & Willmott, H (2010). Organizational theory and design Hampshire. Cengage learning

The author of the book explains how organizations use theories in trying to minimize dependence. The book explains how resource development theory argues that organizations minimize their dependence on other organizations in supply of essential resources and the way it influences environment in making resources available. In order to come to the conclusion about this idea, the author uses two factors to show the amount of dependence on a resource. The authors explain that the factors that impact resource dependence is the importance of the resource to firm and how much monopoly power do the people controlling resources have in its use and allocation.

Singh, D Shi, P Shi, L (2011). Delivering health care in America London. Jones & Bartlett Publishers

According to the authors, they state that the institutional theory is widely used in the social sciences exploring the systems that range from micro interpersonal interaction to the macro global frameworks. The book aims at explaining how institutional theory helps in predicting things such as the aggressive market place behavior which the nonprofit hospitals usually engage in, and the ones for profit hospitals tend to pursue. The authors explain how institutional theory is used when the hospitals are competing in the industry for the same patients.

 Scott, R (2004). Institutional theory Oxford. Oxford University Press

With the aim of explaining about institutional theory in the hospital industry, Scott understands that institutional theory attends to the more resilient and deeper aspects of the social structure. The author explains that it is a theory that considers the norm, rules, and routine are established as the authoritative guidelines for social behavior. The aim of this book is to explain how the structure plays a significant role in designing the organization. Hospitals have been able to use the institutional theory analysis in order to provide a complex and rich view of the organization. This is a strategy that the author explains has helped in attracting top physicians.

Meyer, J (2007). Reflections on institutional theories of organizations the Sage Handbook of organization institutionalism

Institutional theory emphasizes the dependence of the modern organizations in their environment. In this article, Meyer aims at explaining how institutional theories have helped in growing and expanding organizations. According to the author, he explains how the hospitals have been involved in using institutional theories when they are making their decisions and even in helping improve its performance.

Martin, W (2005). Outgrowing resource dependence World Bank Publication

According to the author of this book, he aims at exploring the four changes that tend to reduce the dependence of resources. The factors that the book will aim at discussing are the accumulation of skills and capital, differential rates of technical changes, reduction in transport cost, and changes in protection policy.

Andrew, K & Scott, P (2004). Handbook of organizational change and innovation Oxford. Oxford University Press

Andrew and Scott focus on the assumption and central, focus of resource dependency theory which they state that RDT utilizes the organization in its environment as a unit of analysis. The authors state that the organizations usually use the theory as it emphasizes the focus of the organization on reduction of uncertainty and power differentials. According to this book, it states that the central theme of RDT is that organizations attempt to reduce environment uncertainty through negotiation.

Farazmand, A (2002). Modern organizations Greenwood Publishing Group

The author of the book, Farazmand focuses on the critical and emergent theories in the organizations. In the third chapter of this book, it elaborates and expands the institutional theory and considered as a new theory in the organization. The chapter provides an extensive view of how organizations and especially the health care organizations have implemented institutional theories in their system.


Andrew, K & Scott, P (2004). Handbook of organizational change and innovation Oxford. Oxford University Press

Collins, B Withers, M & Hillman, A (2009). Resource dependency theory Journal of management 20 (10)

Daft R, Murphy, J & Willmott, H (2010). Organizational theory and design Hampshire. Cengage learning

Dean T (2013) John Hopkins Hospital Retrieved from http://health.usnews.com/best-hospitals/area/md/johns-hopkins-hospital-6320180

Farazmand, A (2002). Modern organizations Greenwood Publishing Group

Martin, W (2005). Outgrowing resource dependence World Bank Publication

McCarthy, D & Klein, S (2012). Johns Hopkins Medicine Commonwealth fund pub. 1474 vol. 6

 Meyer, J (2007). Reflections on institutional theories of organizations the Sage Handbook of organization institutionalism

Scott, R (2004). Institutional theory Oxford. Oxford University Press

Singh, D Shi, P Shi, L (2011). Delivering health care in America London. Jones & Bartlett Publishers

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