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Writing Exercises p 70 Featured

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Writing Exercises p 70


2. Causal modeling helps a reader to visualize the interconnections among variables. For my quantitative proposal on How Well Are Regular Community-Based after School Program Teachers Trained to Work with Students with Autism or Emotional Behavioral Disorder can be analyzed according to visual model. The visual model can be in the form of cause-and-effect or left to right presentation. It shows the independent variables as the factors that influence, affect or cause outcomes. They can be the predictor, antecedent, treatment and manipulated variables. The second category involves the dependent variables which rely on the independent variables. They comprise of results and outcomes coming from the independent variable influence. The third category is the mediating or intervening variables that are between the dependent and independent variables.


The moderating variables are created by a researcher through these of a variable and multiplying it with another variable so as to achieve a joint impact. Last category involves the confounding and control variables. Control variables are as a specific type of independent variables used by the researcher to measure its influence to the dependent variable. Confounding variables are the observed and not measured variables in a study.


Virtual model

Skills of after school program teachers

                                               Training of teachers/ improving communication

Lack of facilities

For students with disabilities                                                  poor academic performance.

                                                                                         Lack of social skills among

                                                                                            Students with autism and EBD

 Dependent variables

 Equipping after school programs


 Intervening variable

Independent variable

3. Locate qualitative journal articles that generate or develop a theory at the end of the study, and (c).

a.) constructing the empirically grounded theory calls for the need to establish a reciprocal relationship between theory and data. Data can be allowed to provide propositions in a dialectical way and allows the use of Priori theory frameworks. A qualitative journal an article that uses Priori theory is by Shah S, & Corley, K (2006). The researchers use grounded theory as a tool for analysis. This is because the technique is for illuminating and creating a novel theoretical concept and its prevalence use on organizations literature on social sciences.


 b.) Morrow and Smith (1995) in their study were able to generate data at the end of their study after collecting data. This is through first prescribing a theory in the beginning and generating tan appropriate theory in the process of data collection and analysis. The same is also done by Creswell and Brown 1992 whereby they pose the theory as being a logic diagram and provide contrasting and contending theory with the model generated at the end of their study (Creswell and Urbom 1997).


c.) An example of a qualitative journal article that provided descriptive research without paying homage to a theoretical model is by Lowe, 1997. It is a study on conceptual requirement on the methodology of GT that easily gets lots in QDA challenges on constructivism, type data, accuracy, data collection, participant voice and rigor as per the representative requirements that a described in a flexibility approach. This result in to the hindrance of classic GT methodology and its ability to transcended structures of accurate measurement under the guidance of a conceptual model represent descriptive without an explicit theoretical model. The model provides a fundamental social pattern within the substantive inquiry.


4.Love C (2013) Generations Apart: A mixed methods study of black women’s attitude about race and social activism. Retrieved from http://aura.antioch.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1015&context=etds On May 28, 2013


           My internet search was on the issue on social discrimination for a study that uses mixed methods. The problem definition arises from the social milieu that black women involved with w issues on social justice are viewed as race women. The mixed method is generated by investigating generational differences in attitudes and race that contribute to social justice among black women. The researcher had to spend considerable time with participants making them to trusts her with their stories. Research questions explored issues on gender, generational cohort, and race. They were asked in through foreshadowing questions and other relevant questions. The questions focused on the historical background on issues of race among black women (Love, 2013).


The Research Design is an expository sequential mixed method study in finding out the generational differences in social justice involvement and racial attitude among Black women. Researchers treated participants with ethical respect and consideration by maintaining their confidentiality. Data Sources included focus group, personal interviews and open-ended and closed questions surveys. Selecting partisans is via the snowball, purposes approach for the qualitative phrase. There is a random selection, convenience and snowball sampling for quantitative phase. The participants vary as per generation. In order to improve inclusiveness the researcher handles conflicting data by adding an additional phrase (Creswell, 2008, p 20. The qualitative data collection methods are appropriate in the collection of theoretical constructs.


                                                     Reference

Lowe, Andy (1997). Managing to Post Merger Aftermath-Default Remodeling.

Creswell, John W. (1998). Qualitative Inquiry and Research Design. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.

Love C (2013) Generations Apart: A mixed methods study of black women’s attitude about race and social activism. Retrieved from http://aura.antioch.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1015&context=etds On May 28, 2013

Morrow, S. L., & Smith, M. L. (1995). Constructions of survival and coping by women who

Have survived childhood sexual abuse. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 42, 24-33

Shah S, & Corley, K (2006) Building better theory by bridging the qualitative and quantitative divide. http://faculty.washington.edu/skshah/Shah,%20Corley%20-%20Qualitative%20Methods.pdf

Mertens D  (2003), Mixed Methods and the Politics of Human Research. Handbook of Mixed Methods

Creswell, J (2009) Research design: Qualitative, quantitative, and mixed methods approach. Thousand Oaks, Sage Publications.

Cozby, P (2012). Methods in behavioral research. Boston: McGraw Hill Higher Education. ISBN: 9780078035159


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